Map Trove newspaper results by place of publication over time

In another notebook, I constructed a heatmap displaying the places of publication of articles returned by a search in Trove's newspapers zone.

I suggested that it would be interesting to visualise changes over time. This notebook does just that by creating an animated heatmap.

The key difference here is that instead of just getting and processing a single Trove API request, we'll need to fire off a series of API requests — one for each time interval.

You can use this notebook to visualise your own search queries, just edit the search parameters were indicated.

If you haven't used one of these notebooks before, they're basically web pages in which you can write, edit, and run live code. They're meant to encourage experimentation, so don't feel nervous. Just try running a few cells and see what happens!.

Some tips:

  • Code cells have boxes around them.
  • To run a code cell click on the cell and then hit Shift+Enter. The Shift+Enter combo will also move you to the next cell, so it's a quick way to work through the notebook.
  • While a cell is running a * appears in the square brackets next to the cell. Once the cell has finished running the asterix will be replaced with a number.
  • In most cases you'll want to start from the top of notebook and work your way down running each cell in turn. Later cells might depend on the results of earlier ones.
  • To edit a code cell, just click on it and type stuff. Remember to run the cell once you've finished editing.

Add your API key

You need an API key to get data from Trove.

In [ ]:
# This creates a variable called 'api_key', paste your key between the quotes
# <-- Then click the run icon 
api_key = 'YOUR API KEY'

# This displays a message with your key
print('Your API key is: {}'.format(api_key))

Setting things up

You don't need to edit anything here. Just run the cells to load the bits and pieces we need.

In [2]:
# Import the libraries we need
# <-- Click the run icon 
import requests
import pandas as pd
import os
import altair as alt
import json
import folium
from folium.plugins import HeatMapWithTime
import numpy as np
from import tqdm
In [3]:
# Set up default parameters for our API query
# <-- Click the run icon 
params = {
    'zone': 'newspaper',
    'encoding': 'json',
    'facet': 'title',
    'n': '1',
    'key': api_key

api_url = ''
In [22]:
# <-- Click the run icon 
def format_facets(data):
    Extract and normalise the facet data
    # Check to make sure we have results
        facets = data['response']['zone'][0]['facets']['facet']['term']
    except TypeError:
        # No results!
        # Convert to DataFrame
        df = pd.DataFrame(facets)
        # Select the columns we want
        df = df[['display', 'count']]
        # Rename the columns
        df.columns = ['title_id', 'total']
        # Make sure the total column is a number
        df['total'] = pd.to_numeric(df['total'], errors='coerce')
    return df

def prepare_data(data):
    Reformat the facet data, merge with locations, and then generate a list of locations.
    # Check for results
        df = format_facets(data)
    except TypeError:
        # If there are no results just return and empty list
        hm_data = []
        # Merge facets data with geolocated list of titles
        df_located = pd.merge(df, locations, on='title_id', how='left')
        # Group results by place, and calculate the total results for each
        df_totals = df_located.groupby(['place', 'latitude', 'longitude']).sum()
        hm_data = []
        for place in df_totals.index:
            # Get the total
            total = df_totals.loc[place]['total']
            # Add the coordinates of the place to the list of locations as many times as there are articles
            hm_data += ([[place[1], place[2]]] * total)
    return hm_data

# Get the geolocated titles data
locations = pd.read_csv('data/trove-newspaper-titles-locations.csv', dtype={'title_id': 'int64'})
# Only keep the first instance of each title
locations.drop_duplicates(subset=['title_id'], keep='first', inplace=True)

This is where you set your search keywords. Change 'weather AND wragge date:[* TO 1954]' in the cell below to anything you might enter in the Trove simple search box. Don't include a date range, as we'll be handling that separately. For example:

params['q'] = 'weather AND wragge'

params['q'] = '"Clement Wragge"'

params['q'] = 'text:"White Australia Policy"'

You can also limit the results to specific categories. To only search for articles, include this line:

params['l-category'] = 'Article'

In [24]:
# Enter your search parameters
# This can be anything you'd enter in the Trove simple search box
params['q'] = 'text:"White Australia"'

# Remove the "#" symbol from the line below to limit the results to the article category
#params['l-category'] = 'Article'

Set your date range

In this example we'll use years as our time interval. We could easily change this to months, or even individual days for a fine-grained analysis.

In [25]:
start_year = 1880
end_year = 1950

Get the data from Trove

We need to make an API request for each year in our date range, so we'll construct a loop.

The cell below generates two lists. The first, hm_series, is a list containing the data from each API request. The second, time_index, is a list of the years we're getting data for. Obviously these two lists should be the same length — one dataset for each year.

In [ ]:
# <-- Click the run icon 
hm_series = []
time_index = []
for year in tqdm(range(start_year, end_year + 1)):
    decade = str(year)[:3]
    params['l-decade'] = decade
    params['l-year'] = year
    response = requests.get(api_url, params=params)
    data = response.json()
    hm_data = prepare_data(data)

Make an animated heatmap

To create an animated heatmap we just need to feed it the hm_series data and time index.

In [27]:
# <-- Click the run icon 
# Create the map
m = folium.Map(
    location=[-30, 135],

#Add the heatmap data!
<folium.plugins.heat_map_withtime.HeatMapWithTime at 0x11912d9d0>

Search for "White Australia" from 1880 to 1950

In [28]:
# <-- Click the run icon 
Make this Notebook Trusted to load map: File -> Trust Notebook