## The extent parameter in geom_imshow()¶

A list of four numbers: [left, right, bottom, top] that defines the image bounding box in terms of 'data coordinates'.

In [1]:
import numpy as np
from lets_plot import *

LetsPlot.setup_html()


The default extent is derived from the image's array dimentions: [-0.5, ncol-0.5, -0.5, nrow-0.5].

In [2]:
# An 2x2 pix image by default has extent [-0.5, 1.5, -0.5, 1.5]
arr = np.array([
[[150, 0, 0], [0, 150, 0]],
[[0, 0, 150], [150, 150, 0]]
])

ggplot() + geom_imshow(arr)

Out[2]:

## When does image extent need to be set explicitly¶

Let's assume that our image doesn't exist in vacuum but is related to some data, and the image' bounding box in the 'data coordinates' is:

• (x, y) = (0, -1)
• (width, height) = (8, 3).

The image extent in this case would be: [0, 8, -1, 3].

In [3]:
# Generate demo data.
cov0=[[1, -.8],
[-.8, 1]]
cov1=[[ 10, .1],
[.1, .1]]

x0, y0 = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean=[4,0], cov=cov0, size=400).T
x1, y1 = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean=[4,1], cov=cov1, size=400).T

data = dict(
x = np.concatenate((x0,x1)),
y = np.concatenate((y0,y1))
)

In [4]:
ggplot(data, aes('x', 'y')) + geom_density2d() + ggsize(620, 300)

Out[4]:

Let's show the data and the image on the same plot.

In [5]:
(ggplot(data, aes('x', 'y')) +
geom_image(arr, extent=[0, 8, -1, 3]) +
geom_density2d(color="yellow") +
ggsize(620, 300) +
flavor_high_contrast_dark())

WARN: The function geom_image() is deprecated and will be removed in future releases.

Out[5]:

# ¶

## Flipping and transposing image using extent¶

In [6]:
# Load image file.
from PIL import Image
import requests
from io import BytesIO

response = requests.get('https://github.com/JetBrains/lets-plot-docs/raw/master/source/examples/cookbook/images/fisher_boat.png')

image = Image.open(BytesIO(response.content))
boat_arr = np.asarray(image)
boat_arr.shape

Out[6]:
(225, 225, 3)
In [7]:
ggplot() + geom_imshow(image_data=boat_arr)

Out[7]:
In [8]:
dim = 100

ext_base = [0, dim, 0, dim]
ext_flip_x = [dim, 0, 0, dim]
ext_flip_y = [0, dim, dim, 0]
ext_transpose = [dim, 0, dim, 0]

label_data = dict(
x = [50, 150, 150, 50],
y = [200, 200, 0, 0],
label = ["original", "flip columns", "flip rows", "transpose"]
)

(ggplot() +
geom_imshow(
boat_arr,
extent=[v + dim if i in (2, 3) else v for i, v in enumerate(ext_base)]
) +
geom_imshow(
boat_arr,
extent=[v + dim for v in ext_flip_x]
) +
geom_imshow(
boat_arr,
extent=[v + dim if i in (0, 1) else v for i, v in enumerate(ext_flip_y)]
) +
geom_imshow(
boat_arr,
extent=ext_transpose
) +
geom_hline(yintercept=100, color="yellow", tooltips="none") +
geom_vline(xintercept=100, color="yellow", tooltips="none") +
geom_label(aes("x", "y", label="label"), data=label_data) +
ggsize(700, 700)
)

Out[8]: