In this example we consider the modeling of a magnesium lattice as a simple example for a metallic system. For our treatment we will use the PBE exchange-correlation functional. First we import required packages and setup the lattice. Again notice that DFTK uses the convention that lattice vectors are specified column by column.

In [1]:

```
using DFTK
using Plots
using Unitful
using UnitfulAtomic
a = 3.01794 # bohr
b = 5.22722 # bohr
c = 9.77362 # bohr
lattice = [[-a -a 0]; [-b b 0]; [0 0 -c]]
Mg = ElementPsp(:Mg, psp=load_psp("hgh/pbe/Mg-q2"))
atoms = [Mg, Mg]
positions = [[2/3, 1/3, 1/4], [1/3, 2/3, 3/4]];
```

Next we build the PBE model and discretize it.
Since magnesium is a metal we apply a small smearing
temperature to ease convergence using the Fermi-Dirac
smearing scheme. Note that both the `Ecut`

is too small
as well as the minimal $k$-point spacing
`kspacing`

far too large to give a converged result.
These have been selected to obtain a fast execution time.
By default `PlaneWaveBasis`

chooses a `kspacing`

of `2π * 0.022`

inverse Bohrs, which is much more reasonable.

In [2]:

```
kspacing = 0.945 / u"angstrom" # Minimal spacing of k-points,
# in units of wavevectors (inverse Bohrs)
Ecut = 5 # Kinetic energy cutoff in Hartree
temperature = 0.01 # Smearing temperature in Hartree
smearing = DFTK.Smearing.FermiDirac() # Smearing method
# also supported: Gaussian,
# MarzariVanderbilt,
# and MethfesselPaxton(order)
model = model_DFT(lattice, atoms, positions, [:gga_x_pbe, :gga_c_pbe];
temperature, smearing)
kgrid = kgrid_from_minimal_spacing(lattice, kspacing)
basis = PlaneWaveBasis(model; Ecut, kgrid);
```

Finally we run the SCF. Two magnesium atoms in
our pseudopotential model result in four valence electrons being explicitly
treated. Nevertheless this SCF will solve for eight bands by default
in order to capture partial occupations beyond the Fermi level due to
the employed smearing scheme. In this example we use a damping of `0.8`

.
The default `LdosMixing`

should be suitable to converge metallic systems
like the one we model here. For the sake of demonstration we still switch to
Kerker mixing here.

In [3]:

```
scfres = self_consistent_field(basis, damping=0.8, mixing=KerkerMixing());
```

In [4]:

```
scfres.occupation[1]
```

Out[4]:

In [5]:

```
scfres.energies
```

Out[5]:

The fact that magnesium is a metal is confirmed by plotting the density of states around the Fermi level.

In [6]:

```
plot_dos(scfres)
```

Out[6]: