人们进行这类仪式来影响那些他们觉得没有理性手段可以控制其进程的结果。Malinowski, 1948, p 25-36.
埃弗雷特·休斯（Everett Hughes): 把引言部分放到最后来写！
小老虎丹尼尔：when we do something new, let's talk about what we do!
To begin, consider the following paragraph, which discusses the strategy of describing social groups through photographic portraits of their members:
Whatever part they [photographers] let stand for the person, the strategy implies a theory and a method. The theory is a simple one, but it is important to make its steps explicit, so that we can see how it works. The theory is that the life a person has lived, its good times and bad, leaves its marks. Someone who has lived a happy life will have a face that shows that. Someone who has managed to maintain their human dignity in the face of trouble will have a face that shows that. . .. This is a daring strategy, because it makes the little that the photograph does contain carry an enormous weight. We must, if the theory is to work and help us to produce effective images, choose faces, details of them, and moments in their history which, recorded on film and printed on paper, allow viewers to infer everything else they are interested in. Viewers, that is, look at the lines on a face and infer from them a life spent in hard work in the sun.
The theory is a simple one, but it is important to make its steps explicit, so that we can see how it works.
I still wasn't happy. The sentence had three clauses which were just strung together. If I can rearrange a sentence so that its organization displays and thus reinforces the connections I am describing, I do.
Now look at the fourth sentence. Someone who has managed to maintain their human dignity in the face of trouble will have a face that shows that. . ..
Finally, consider the sentence about lines on a face: "Viewers, that is, look at the lines on a face and infer from them a life spent in hard work in the sun."
Whatever part a photographer chooses to stand for the person, he or she is employing a strategy that relies on a theory and a method. This strategy depends on the assumption that the experiences of life are recorded in faces, that the life a person has lived leaves physical marks.
Photographers, accordingly, choose faces, details of faces, and moments in their histories which, recorded on film and printed on paper, allow viewers to deduce what they don't see but want to know about. Portraits often contain a wealth of detail, so that careful study allows us to make complex and subtle readings of the character of the person and of the life-in-society of that person. Looking at the lines on a face, viewers may conclude that that these were baked in during a life of hard work in the sun. From these same lines, they can infer wisdom produced by hard work and age or, alternatively, senility and decay. To make any of these conclusions, a viewer must bring to bear on the image one of several possible theories of facial lines.
”Normal science does not aim at novelties of fact or theory and, when successful, finds none. “