Tour of Scala
In Scala, all values have a type, including numerical values and functions. The diagram below illustrates a subset of the type hierarchy.
Any is the supertype of all types, also called the top type. It defines certain universal methods such as
Any has two direct subclasses:
AnyVal represents value types. There are nine predefined value types and they are non-nullable:
Unit is a value type which carries no meaningful information. There is exactly one instance of
Unit which can be declared literally like so:
(). All functions must return something so sometimes
Unit is a useful return type.
AnyRef represents reference types. All non-value types are defined as reference types. Every user-defined type in Scala is a subtype of
AnyRef. If Scala is used in the context of a Java runtime environment,
AnyRef corresponds to
Here is an example that demonstrates that strings, integers, characters, boolean values, and functions are all objects just like every other object:
val list: List[Any] = List( "a string", 732, // an integer 'c', // a character true, // a boolean value () => "an anonymous function returning a string" ) list.foreach(element => println(element))
a string 732 c true ammonite.$sess.cmd0$Helper$$Lambda$2352/2102673157@2859fdff
list: List[Any] = List( "a string", 732, 'c', true, ammonite.$sess.cmd0$Helper$$Lambda$2352/2102673157@2859fdff )
It defines a variable
list of type
List[Any]. The list is initialized with elements of various types, but they all are instance of
scala.Any, so you can add them to the list.
Here is the output of the program:
a string 732 c true <function>
val x: Long = 987654321 val y: Float = x // 9.8765434E8 (note that some precision is lost in this case) val face: Char = '☺' val number: Int = face // 9786
x: Long = 987654321L y: Float = 9.8765434E8F face: Char = '\u263a' number: Int = 9786
Casting is unidirectional. This will not compile:
val x: Long = 987654321 val y: Float = x // 9.8765434E8 val z: Long = y // Does not conform
cmd2.sc:3: type mismatch; found : Float required: Long val z: Long = y // Does not conform ^Compilation Failed
You can also cast a reference type to a subtype. This will be covered later in the tour.
Nothing is a subtype of all types, also called the bottom type. There is no value that has type
Nothing. A common use is to signal non-termination such as a thrown exception, program exit, or an infinite loop (i.e., it is the type of an expression which does not evaluate to a value, or a method that does not return normally).
Null is a subtype of all reference types (i.e. any subtype of AnyRef). It has a single value identified by the keyword literal
Null is provided mostly for interoperability with other JVM languages and should almost never be used in Scala code. We'll cover alternatives to
null later in the tour.
Tour of Scala