# Entropic Regularization of Optimal Transport¶

Important: Please read the installation page for details about how to install the toolboxes. $\newcommand{\dotp}{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$ $\newcommand{\enscond}{\lbrace #1, #2 \rbrace}$ $\newcommand{\pd}{ \frac{ \partial #1}{\partial #2} }$ $\newcommand{\umin}{\underset{#1}{\min}\;}$ $\newcommand{\umax}{\underset{#1}{\max}\;}$ $\newcommand{\umin}{\underset{#1}{\min}\;}$ $\newcommand{\uargmin}{\underset{#1}{argmin}\;}$ $\newcommand{\norm}{\|#1\|}$ $\newcommand{\abs}{\left|#1\right|}$ $\newcommand{\choice}{ \left\{ \begin{array}{l} #1 \end{array} \right. }$ $\newcommand{\pa}{\left(#1\right)}$ $\newcommand{\diag}{{diag}\left( #1 \right)}$ $\newcommand{\qandq}{\quad\text{and}\quad}$ $\newcommand{\qwhereq}{\quad\text{where}\quad}$ $\newcommand{\qifq}{ \quad \text{if} \quad }$ $\newcommand{\qarrq}{ \quad \Longrightarrow \quad }$ $\newcommand{\ZZ}{\mathbb{Z}}$ $\newcommand{\CC}{\mathbb{C}}$ $\newcommand{\RR}{\mathbb{R}}$ $\newcommand{\EE}{\mathbb{E}}$ $\newcommand{\Zz}{\mathcal{Z}}$ $\newcommand{\Ww}{\mathcal{W}}$ $\newcommand{\Vv}{\mathcal{V}}$ $\newcommand{\Nn}{\mathcal{N}}$ $\newcommand{\NN}{\mathcal{N}}$ $\newcommand{\Hh}{\mathcal{H}}$ $\newcommand{\Bb}{\mathcal{B}}$ $\newcommand{\Ee}{\mathcal{E}}$ $\newcommand{\Cc}{\mathcal{C}}$ $\newcommand{\Gg}{\mathcal{G}}$ $\newcommand{\Ss}{\mathcal{S}}$ $\newcommand{\Pp}{\mathcal{P}}$ $\newcommand{\Ff}{\mathcal{F}}$ $\newcommand{\Xx}{\mathcal{X}}$ $\newcommand{\Mm}{\mathcal{M}}$ $\newcommand{\Ii}{\mathcal{I}}$ $\newcommand{\Dd}{\mathcal{D}}$ $\newcommand{\Ll}{\mathcal{L}}$ $\newcommand{\Tt}{\mathcal{T}}$ $\newcommand{\si}{\sigma}$ $\newcommand{\al}{\alpha}$ $\newcommand{\la}{\lambda}$ $\newcommand{\ga}{\gamma}$ $\newcommand{\Ga}{\Gamma}$ $\newcommand{\La}{\Lambda}$ $\newcommand{\si}{\sigma}$ $\newcommand{\Si}{\Sigma}$ $\newcommand{\be}{\beta}$ $\newcommand{\de}{\delta}$ $\newcommand{\De}{\Delta}$ $\newcommand{\phi}{\varphi}$ $\newcommand{\th}{\theta}$ $\newcommand{\om}{\omega}$ $\newcommand{\Om}{\Omega}$

This numerical tours exposes the general methodology of regularizing the optimal transport (OT) linear program using entropy. This allows to derive fast computation algorithm based on iterative projections according to a Kulback-Leiber divergence. $$\DeclareMathOperator{\KL}{KL} \newcommand{\KLdiv}{\KL\pa{#1 | #2}} \newcommand{\KLproj}{P^{\tiny\KL}} \def\ones{\mathbb{I}}$$

In [ ]:
from __future__ import division
import nt_toolbox as nt
from nt_solutions import optimaltransp_5_entropic as solutions
%matplotlib inline


## Entropic Regularization of Optimal Transport¶

We consider two input histograms $p,q \in \Si_N$, where we denote the simplex in $\RR^N$ $$\Si_{N} = \enscond{ p \in (\RR^+)^N }{ \sum_i p_i = 1 }.$$ We consider the following discrete regularized transport $$W_\ga(p,q) = \umin{\pi \in \Pi(p,q)} \dotp{C}{\pi} - \ga E(\pi).$$ where the polytope of coupling is defined as $$\Pi(p,q) = \enscond{\pi \in (\RR^+)^{N \times N}}{ \pi \ones = p, \pi^* \ones = q },$$ and for $f \in (\RR^+)^{P}$ for some $P > 0$, we define its entropy as $$E(f) = - \sum_{i=1}^N f_i ( \log(f_i) - 1).$$

When $\ga=0$ one recovers the classical (discrete) optimal transport. We refer to the monograph Villani for more details about OT. The idea of regularizing transport to allows for faster computation is introduced in Cuturi.

Here the matrix $C \in (\RR^+)^{N \times N}$ defines the ground cost, i.e. $C_{i,j}$ is the cost of moving mass from a bin indexed by $i$ to a bin indexed by $j$.

The regularized transportation problem can be re-written as a projection $$W_\ga(p,q) = \ga \umin{\pi \in \Pi(p,q)} \KLdiv{\pi}{\bar \pi} \qwhereq \bar\pi_{i,j} = e^{ -\frac{C_{i,j}}{\ga} }$$ of $\bar\pi$ according to the Kullback-Leibler divergence. The Kullback-Leibler divergence between $f, \bar f \in (\RR^+)^P$ is $$\KLdiv{f}{\bar f} = \sum_{i=1}^P f_{i} \pa{ \log\pa{ \frac{f_i}{\bar f_i} } - 1}.$$ With a slight abuse of notation, we extend these definitions for vectors $\pi \in \RR^{N \times N}$ (and also higher $d$-dimensional tensor arrays), so that $P=N^2$ (or more generally $P=N^d$) by replacing the sum over elements $f_i$ by $\pi_{i,j}$ with $i,j=1,\ldots,N$.

Given a convex set $\Cc \subset \RR^N$, the projection according to the Kullback-Leiber divergence is defined as $$\KLproj_\Cc(\bar f) = \uargmin{ f \in \Cc } \KLdiv{f}{\bar f}.$$

## Iterative Bregman Projection Algorithm¶

Given affine constraint sets $(\Cc_1,\ldots,\Cc_K)$, we aim at computing $$\KLproj_\Cc(\bar \pi) \qwhereq \Cc = \Cc_1 \cap \ldots \cap \Cc_K.$$

This can be achieved, starting by $\pi_0=\bar\pi$, by iterating $$\forall \ell \geq 0, \quad \pi_{\ell+1} = \KLproj_{\Cc_\ell}(\pi_\ell),$$ where the index of the constraints should be understood modulo $K$, i.e. we set $\Cc_{\ell+K}=\Cc_\ell$.

One can indeed show that $\pi_\ell \rightarrow \KLproj_\Cc(\bar \pi)$. We refer to BauschkeLewis for more details about this algorithm and its extension to compute the projection on the intersection of convex sets (Dikstra algorithm).

## Iterative Projection for Regularized Transport¶

We can re-cast the regularized optimal transport problem within this framework by introducing $$\Cc_1 = \enscond{\pi \in (\RR^+)^{N \times N} }{\pi \ones = p} \qandq \Cc_2 = \enscond{\pi \in (\RR^+)^{N \times N} }{\pi^* \ones = q}$$

The KL projection on $\Cc_1$ sets are easily computed by divisive normalization of rows. Indeed, denoting $\pi = \KLproj_{\Cc_1}(\bar \pi)$, one has $$\forall (i,j), \quad \pi_{i,j} = \frac{ p_i \bar\pi_{i,j} }{ \sum_{s} \bar\pi_{i,s} }$$ and similarely for $\KLproj_{\Cc_1}(\bar \pi)$ by replacing rows by colums.

Size $N$ of the histograms.

In [ ]:
N = 200


Define $\KLproj_{\Cc_1}$.

In [ ]:
ProjC1 = lambda pi, p: pi .* repmat(p./ max(sum(pi, 2), 1e-10), [1 N])


Define $\KLproj_{\Cc_2}$.

In [ ]:
ProjC2 = lambda pi, q: pi .* repmat(q'./ max(sum(pi, 1), 1e-10), [N 1])


We use here a 1-D square Euclidean metric.

In [ ]:
x = (0: N-1)'/ N; y = x
Y = repmat(y', [N 1])
X = repmat(x, [1 N])
C = abs(X-Y).^2


Define the histogram $p,q$

In [ ]:
Gaussian = lambda x0, sigma: exp(-(x-x0).^2/ (2*sigma^2))
normalize = lambda p: p/ sum(p(: ))
x0 = .2; y0 = .8;  sigma = .07
p = Gaussian(x0, sigma)
q = Gaussian(y0, sigma)


Add some minimal mass and normalize.

In [ ]:
vmin = .02
p = normalize(p + max(p)*vmin)
q = normalize(q + max(q)*vmin)


Display them.

In [ ]:
subplot(2, 1, 1)
bar(x, p, 'k'); axis tight
subplot(2, 1, 2)
bar(y, q, 'k'); axis tight


Exercise 1

Perform the iterations, and display the decay of the errors $$\norm{\pi_\ell \ones - p} \qandq \norm{\pi_\ell^* \ones - q}$$ in log scale. isplay error decay.

In [ ]:
solutions.exo1()

In [ ]:
## Insert your code here.


Display the optimal $\pi$.

In [ ]:
imageplot(pi)


For visualization purpose, to more clearly see the optimal map, do a normalization.

In [ ]:
normalizeMax = lambda pi: pi ./ repmat(max(pi, [], 1), [N 1])

imageplot(normalizeMax(pi))


Exercise 2

Display the transport map for several values of $\gamma$.

In [ ]:
solutions.exo2()

In [ ]:
## Insert your code here.


## Bibliography¶

• [Villani] Villani, C. (2009). Optimal transport: old and new, volume 338. Springer Verlag.
• [Cuturi] Cuturi, M. (2013). Sinkhorn distances: Lightspeed computation of optimal transport. In Burges, C. J. C., Bottou, L., Ghahramani, Z., and Weinberger, K. Q., editors, Proc. NIPS, pages 2292-2300.
• [AguehCarlier] Agueh, M. and Carlier, G. (2011). Barycenters in the Wasserstein space. SIAM J. on Mathematical Analysis, 43(2):904-924.
• [CuturiDoucet] Cuturi, M. and Doucet, A. (2014). Fast computation of wasserstein barycenters. In Proc. ICML.
• [BauschkeLewis] H. H. Bauschke and A. S. Lewis. Dykstra's algorithm with Bregman projections: a convergence proof. Optimization, 48(4):409-427, 2000.