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import panel as pn

The GridSpec layout allows arranging multiple Panel objects in a grid using a simple API to assign objects to individual grid cells or to a grid span. Other layout containers function like lists, but a GridSpec has an API similar to a 2D array, making it possible to use 2D assignment to populate, index, and slice the grid.


For layout and styling related parameters see the customization user guide.

  • mode (str): Whether to 'warn', 'error', or simply 'override' on overlapping assignment
  • objects (list): The list of objects to display in the GridSpec. Should not generally be modified directly except when replaced in its entirety.

A GridSpec can be created either with a fixed size (the default) or with responsive sizing. In both cases the GridSpec will modify the contents to ensure the objects fill the grid cells assigned to them.

To demonstrate this behavior, let us declare a fixed-size GridSpec and then assign Spacer objects with distinct colors. We populate a 3x4 grid with these objects and display it:

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gspec = pn.GridSpec(width=800, height=600)

gspec[:,   0  ] = pn.Spacer(background='red',    margin=0)
gspec[0,   1:3] = pn.Spacer(background='green',  margin=0)
gspec[1,   2:4] = pn.Spacer(background='orange', margin=0)
gspec[2,   1:4] = pn.Spacer(background='blue',   margin=0)
gspec[0:1, 3:4] = pn.Spacer(background='purple', margin=0)


As we can see the fixed-size GridSpec fills the 800x600 pixels assigned to it and each of the Spacer objects has been resized to fill the alloted grid cells, including the empty grid cell in the center. A convenient way to get an overview of the grid without rendering it is to display the grid property, which returns an array showing which grid cells have been filled:

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In addition to assigning objects to the grid we can also index the grid:

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gspec[2, 2]

And select a subregion using slicing semantics:

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gspec[0, 1:]

The behavior when replacing existing grid cells can be controlled using the mode option. By default the GridSpec will warn when assigning to one or more grid cells that are already occupied. The behavior may be changed to either error or override silently, by setting mode='error' or mode='override' respectively.

Responsive grids

In addition to fixed-size grids, GridSpec also supports all the standard sizing modes outlined in the Customization user guide. Responsive sizing modes allow declaring grids that rescale dynamically when the browser window is resized and when loading the app or dashboard on different devices. Just like the fixed-width mode, the GridSpec will automatically set responsive sizing modes on the grid contents to fill the space correctly. To control the maximum and minimum size of the grid, use the max_ and min_ width and height options.

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import holoviews as hv
import holoviews.plotting.bokeh

from bokeh.plotting import figure

fig = figure()
fig.scatter([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9], [0, 1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3])

gspec = pn.GridSpec(sizing_mode='stretch_both', max_height=800)

gspec[0, :3] = pn.Spacer(background='#FF0000')
gspec[1:3, 0] = pn.Spacer(background='#0000FF')
gspec[1:3, 1:3] = fig
gspec[3:5, 0] = hv.Curve([1, 2, 3])
gspec[3:5, 1] = ''
gspec[4:5, 2] = pn.Column(
    pn.widgets.Toggle(name='Toggle Me!'))