In [1]:
import numpy
import tqdm
import wendy
%pylab inline
import matplotlib.animation as animation
from matplotlib import cm
from IPython.display import HTML
_SAVE_GIFS= False
rcParams.update({'axes.labelsize': 17.,
'font.size': 12.,
'legend.fontsize': 17.,
'xtick.labelsize':15.,
'ytick.labelsize':15.,
'text.usetex': _SAVE_GIFS,
'figure.figsize': [5,5],
'xtick.major.size' : 4,
'ytick.major.size' : 4,
'xtick.minor.size' : 2,
'ytick.minor.size' : 2,
'legend.numpoints':1})
numpy.random.seed(2)

Populating the interactive namespace from numpy and matplotlib


# A self-gravitating, $\mathrm{sech}^2$ disk¶

A well-known solution of the one-dimensional N-body system is a $\mathrm{sech}^2$ disk. This is the equilibrium distribution for a disk with an isothermal Gaussian velocity distribution (that is, a velocity distribution that is Gaussian with the same dispersion at all locations). Because the equilibrium distribution can only be a function of the energy $E = \Phi(x)+v^2/2$ and the velocity distribution is required to be Gaussian, $f(v) \propto e^{-v^2/[2\sigma^2]}$, the equilibrium distribution function is by necessity:

$f(x,v) = \frac{\rho_0}{\sqrt{2\pi}\,\sigma}\,e^{-E/\sigma^2} = \frac{\rho_0}{\sqrt{2\pi}\,\sigma}\,e^{-\Phi(x)/\sigma^2-v^2/[2\sigma^2]}\,,$

with density

$\rho(x) = \rho_0\,e^{-\Phi(x)/\sigma^2}\,.$

Plugging this density into the Poisson equation allows us to solve for the potential:

$\frac{\mathrm{d}^2\Phi(x)}{\mathrm{d}x} = 4\pi G \rho(x) = 4\pi G \rho_0\,e^{-\Phi(x)/\sigma^2}\,,$

which has the solution

$\Phi(x) = 2\sigma^2 \ln\left(\mathrm{cosh}\left[\frac{x}{2 H}\right]\right)\,,$

with $H^2 = \sigma^2/[8\pi G \rho_0]$, which can be readily checked. Alternatively, $H = \sigma^2 / [2\pi G \Sigma]$, where $\Sigma$ is the total surface density. The density is then

$\rho(x) = \rho_0\,\mathrm{sech}^2\left(\frac{x}{2H}\right)\,.$

Let's check that this is indeed an equilibrium solution by initializing a system with this density and velocity distribution and testing whether (a) it remains the same over time and (b) whether the potential is correct.

In [2]:
N= 1001
# compute zh based on sigma and totmass
totmass= 1. # Sigma above
sigma= 1.
zh= sigma**2./totmass # twopiG = 1. in our units
tdyn= zh/sigma
x= numpy.arctanh(2.*numpy.random.uniform(size=N)-1)*zh*2.
v= numpy.random.normal(size=N)*sigma
v-= numpy.mean(v) # stabilize
m= numpy.ones_like(x)/N#*(1.+0.1*(2.*numpy.random.uniform(size=N)-1))

In [3]:
g= wendy.nbody(x,v,m,0.05*tdyn,maxcoll=10000000,full_output=True)

In [4]:
nt= 1000
xt= numpy.empty((N,nt+1))
vt= numpy.empty((N,nt+1))
Et= numpy.empty((nt+1))
xt[:,0]= x
vt[:,0]= v
Et[0]= wendy.energy(x,v,m)
for ii in tqdm.trange(nt):
tx,tv,ncoll, _= next(g)
xt[:,ii+1]= tx
vt[:,ii+1]= tv
Et[ii+1]= wendy.energy(tx,tv,m)
print("Encountered %i collisions" % ncoll)

100%|██████████| 1000/1000 [00:06<00:00, 151.10it/s]
Encountered 4812453 collisions


First, we check that energy was conserved:

In [5]:
plot(numpy.arange(len(Et))/20.,Et)
xlabel(r'$t$')
ylabel(r'$E_{\mathrm{tot}}$')

Out[5]:
<matplotlib.text.Text at 0x109546e48>

Let's make a movie of the evolution of the system in phase space (color-coding is the initial energy, higher energy particles are also displayed as larger dots):

In [6]:
def init_anim_frame():
line1= plot([],[])
xlabel(r'$x$')
ylabel(r'$v$')
xlim(-7.99,7.99)
ylim(-3.99,3.99)
return (line1[0],)
figsize(6,4)
fig, ax= subplots()
c= wendy.energy(x,v,m,individual=True)
s= 5.*((c-numpy.amin(c))/(numpy.amax(c)-numpy.amin(c))*2.+1.)
line= ax.scatter(x,v,c=c,s=s,edgecolors='None',cmap=cm.jet)
txt= ax.annotate(r'$t=%.0f$' % (0.),
(0.95,0.95),xycoords='axes fraction',
horizontalalignment='right',verticalalignment='top',size=18.)
subsamp= 4
def animate(ii):
line.set_offsets(numpy.array([xt[:,ii*subsamp],vt[:,ii*subsamp]]).T)
txt.set_text(r'$t=%.0f$' % (ii*subsamp/20.))
return (line,)
anim = animation.FuncAnimation(fig,animate,init_func=init_anim_frame,
frames=nt//subsamp,interval=40,blit=True,repeat=True)
if _SAVE_GIFS:
anim.save('sech2disk_phasespace.gif',writer='imagemagick',dpi=80)
# The following is necessary to just get the movie, and not an additional initial frame
plt.close()
out= HTML(anim.to_html5_video())
plt.close()
out

Out[6]: