All the IPython Notebooks in this lecture series are available at https://github.com/rajathkumarmp/Python-Lectures

# Control Flow Statements¶

## If¶

if some_condition:

algorithm
In :
x = 12
if x >10:
print "Hello"

Hello


## If-else¶

if some_condition:

algorithm



else:

algorithm
In :
x = 12
if x > 10:
print "hello"
else:
print "world"

hello


## if-elif¶

if some_condition:

algorithm



elif some_condition:

algorithm



else:

algorithm
In :
x = 10
y = 12
if x > y:
print "x>y"
elif x < y:
print "x<y"
else:
print "x=y"

x<y


if statement inside a if statement or if-elif or if-else are called as nested if statements.

In :
x = 10
y = 12
if x > y:
print "x>y"
elif x < y:
print "x<y"
if x==10:
print "x=10"
else:
print "invalid"
else:
print "x=y"

x<y
x=10


## Loops¶

### For¶

for variable in something:

algorithm
In :
for i in range(5):
print i

0
1
2
3
4


In the above example, i iterates over the 0,1,2,3,4. Every time it takes each value and executes the algorithm inside the loop. It is also possible to iterate over a nested list illustrated below.

In :
list_of_lists = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
for list1 in list_of_lists:
print list1

[1, 2, 3]
[4, 5, 6]
[7, 8, 9]


A use case of a nested for loop in this case would be,

In :
list_of_lists = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
for list1 in list_of_lists:
for x in list1:
print x

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9


### While¶

while some_condition:

algorithm
In :
i = 1
while i < 3:
print(i ** 2)
i = i+1
print('Bye')

1
4
Bye


## Break¶

As the name says. It is used to break out of a loop when a condition becomes true when executing the loop.

In :
for i in range(100):
print i
if i>=7:
break

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7


## Continue¶

This continues the rest of the loop. Sometimes when a condition is satisfied there are chances of the loop getting terminated. This can be avoided using continue statement.

In :
for i in range(10):
if i>4:
print "The end."
continue
elif i<7:
print i

0
1
2
3
4
The end.
The end.
The end.
The end.
The end.


## List Comprehensions¶

Python makes it simple to generate a required list with a single line of code using list comprehensions. For example If i need to generate multiples of say 27 I write the code using for loop as,

In :
res = []
for i in range(1,11):
x = 27*i
res.append(x)
print res

[27, 54, 81, 108, 135, 162, 189, 216, 243, 270]


Since you are generating another list altogether and that is what is required, List comprehensions is a more efficient way to solve this problem.

In :
[27*x for x in range(1,11)]

Out:
[27, 54, 81, 108, 135, 162, 189, 216, 243, 270]

That's it!. Only remember to enclose it in square brackets

Understanding the code, The first bit of the code is always the algorithm and then leave a space and then write the necessary loop. But you might be wondering can nested loops be extended to list comprehensions? Yes you can.

In :
[27*x for x in range(1,20) if x<=10]

Out:
[27, 54, 81, 108, 135, 162, 189, 216, 243, 270]

Let me add one more loop to make you understand better,

In :
[27*z for i in range(50) if i==27 for z in range(1,11)]

Out:
[27, 54, 81, 108, 135, 162, 189, 216, 243, 270]