# Rf 4 0 2_Datahandling¶

Data and categories: tools for manipulation of (un)binned datasets

Author: Clemens Lange, Wouter Verkerke (C++ version)
This notebook tutorial was automatically generated with ROOTBOOK-izer from the macro found in the ROOT repository on Friday, May 13, 2022 at 09:30 AM.

In :
from __future__ import print_function
import ROOT
import math

Welcome to JupyROOT 6.27/01


Binned (RooDataHist) and unbinned datasets (RooDataSet) share many properties and inherit from a common abstract base class (RooAbsData), provides an interface for all operations that can be performed regardless of the data format

In :
x = ROOT.RooRealVar("x", "x", -10, 10)
y = ROOT.RooRealVar("y", "y", 0, 40)
c = ROOT.RooCategory("c", "c")
c.defineType("Plus", +1)
c.defineType("Minus", -1)

Out:
False

## Basic operations on unbinned datasetss¶

ROOT.RooDataSet is an unbinned dataset (a collection of points in N-dimensional space)

In :
d = ROOT.RooDataSet("d", "d", {x, y, c})


Unlike ROOT.RooAbsArgs (ROOT.RooAbsPdf, ROOT.RooFormulaVar,....) datasets are not attached to the variables they are constructed from. Instead they are attached to an internal clone of the supplied set of arguments

Fill d with dummy values

In :
for i in range(1000):
x.setVal(i / 50 - 10)
y.setVal(math.sqrt(1.0 * i))
if i % 2:
c.setLabel("Plus")
else:
c.setLabel("Minus")

# We must explicitly refer to x,y, here to pass the values because
# d is not linked to them (as explained above)
if i < 3:
print(x, y, c)
print(type(x))

d.Print("v")
print("")

RooRealVar::x = -10  L(-10 - 10)
RooRealVar::y = 0  L(0 - 40)
{ {"Minus" , -1}, {"Plus" , 1} }
<class cppyy.gbl.RooRealVar at 0x8489030>
RooRealVar::x = -9.98  L(-10 - 10)
RooRealVar::y = 1  L(0 - 40)
{ {"Minus" , -1}, {"Plus" , 1} }
<class cppyy.gbl.RooRealVar at 0x8489030>
RooRealVar::x = -9.96  L(-10 - 10)
RooRealVar::y = 1.41421  L(0 - 40)
{ {"Minus" , -1}, {"Plus" , 1} }
<class cppyy.gbl.RooRealVar at 0x8489030>

DataStore d (d)
Contains 1000 entries
Observables:
1)  y = 31.607  L(0 - 40)  "y"
2)  x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
3)  c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"


The get() function returns a pointer to the internal copy of the RooArgSet(x,y,c) supplied in the constructor

In :
row = d.get()
row.Print("v")
print("")

  1) 0x8b8b570 RooRealVar:: y = 31.607  L(0 - 40)  "y"
2) 0x8b8e140 RooRealVar:: x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
3) 0x86ec810 RooCategory:: c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"


Get with an argument loads a specific data point in row and returns a pointer to row argset. get() always returns the same pointer, unless an invalid row number is specified. In that case a null ptr is returned

In :
d.get(900).Print("v")
print("")

  1) 0x8b8b570 RooRealVar:: y = 30  L(0 - 40)  "y"
2) 0x8b8e140 RooRealVar:: x = 8  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
3) 0x86ec810 RooCategory:: c = Minus(idx = -1)
"c"


## Reducing, appending and merging¶

The reduce() function returns a dataset which is a subset of the original

In :
print("\n >> d1 has only columns x,c")
d1 = d.reduce({x, c})
d1.Print("v")

print("\n >> d2 has only column y")
d2 = d.reduce({y})
d2.Print("v")

print("\n >> d3 has only the points with y>5.17")
d3 = d.reduce("y>5.17")
d3.Print("v")

print("\n >> d4 has only columns x, for data points with y>5.17")
d4 = d.reduce({x, c}, "y>5.17")
d4.Print("v")

 >> d1 has only columns x,c

>> d2 has only column y

>> d3 has only the points with y>5.17

>> d4 has only columns x, for data points with y>5.17
DataStore d (d)
Contains 1000 entries
Observables:
1)  c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"
2)  x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
DataStore d (d)
Contains 1000 entries
Observables:
1)  y = 31.607  L(0 - 40)  "y"
[#1] INFO:InputArguments -- The formula y>5.17 claims to use the variables (y,x,c) but only (y) seem to be in use.
inputs:         y>5.17
DataStore d (d)
Contains 973 entries
Observables:
1)  y = 31.607  L(0 - 40)  "y"
2)  x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
3)  c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"
DataStore d (d)
Contains 973 entries
Observables:
1)  c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"
2)  x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"


The merge() function adds two data set column-wise

In :
print("\n >> merge d2(y) with d1(x,c) to form d1(x,c,y)")
d1.merge(d2)
d1.Print("v")

 >> merge d2(y) with d1(x,c) to form d1(x,c,y)
DataStore d (d)
Contains 1000 entries
Observables:
1)  c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"
2)  x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
3)  y = 31.607  L(0 - 40)  "y"


The append() function addes two datasets row-wise

In :
print("\n >> append data points of d3 to d1")
d1.append(d3)
d1.Print("v")

 >> append data points of d3 to d1
DataStore d (d)
Contains 1973 entries
Observables:
1)  c = Plus(idx = 1)
"c"
2)  x = 9.98  L(-10 - 10)  "x"
3)  y = 31.607  L(0 - 40)  "y"


## Operations on binned datasets¶

A binned dataset can be constructed empty, an unbinned dataset, or from a ROOT native histogram (TH1,2,3)

In :
print(">> construct dh (binned) from d(unbinned) but only take the x and y dimensions, ")
print(">> the category 'c' will be projected in the filling process")

>> construct dh (binned) from d(unbinned) but only take the x and y dimensions,
>> the category 'c' will be projected in the filling process


The binning of real variables (like x,y) is done using their fit range 'get/setRange()' and number of specified fit bins 'get/setBins()'. Category dimensions of binned datasets get one bin per defined category state

In :
x.setBins(10)
y.setBins(10)
dh = ROOT.RooDataHist("dh", "binned version of d", {x, y}, d)
dh.Print("v")

yframe = y.frame(Bins=10, Title="Operations on binned datasets")
dh.plotOn(yframe)  # plot projection of 2D binned data on y

Out:
<cppyy.gbl.RooPlot object at 0x920ae00>
DataStore dh (binned version of d)
Contains 100 entries
Observables:
1)  y = 38  L(0 - 40) B(10)  "y"
2)  x = 9  L(-10 - 10) B(10)  "x"
Binned Dataset dh (binned version of d)
Contains 100 bins with a total weight of 1000
Observables:     1)  y = 38  L(0 - 40) B(10)  "y"
2)  x = 9  L(-10 - 10) B(10)  "x"


Examine the statistics of a binned dataset

In :
print(">> number of bins in dh   : ", dh.numEntries())
print(">> sum of weights in dh   : ", dh.sum(False))

>> number of bins in dh   :  100
>> sum of weights in dh   :  1000.0


accounts for bin volume

In :
print(">> integral over histogram: ", dh.sum(True))

>> integral over histogram:  8000.0


Locate a bin from a set of coordinates and retrieve its properties

In :
x.setVal(0.3)
y.setVal(20.5)
print(">> retrieving the properties of the bin enclosing coordinate (x,y) = (0.3,20.5) bin center:")

>> retrieving the properties of the bin enclosing coordinate (x,y) = (0.3,20.5) bin center:


load bin center coordinates in internal buffer

In :
dh.get({x, y}).Print("v")
print(" weight = ", dh.weight())  # return weight of last loaded coordinates

 weight =  76.0
1) 0x9130d90 RooRealVar:: y = 22  L(0 - 40) B(10)  "y"
2) 0x8f4b2f0 RooRealVar:: x = 1  L(-10 - 10) B(10)  "x"


Reduce the 2-dimensional binned dataset to a 1-dimensional binned dataset

All reduce() methods are interfaced in RooAbsData. All reduction techniques demonstrated on unbinned datasets can be applied to binned datasets as well.

In :
print(">> Creating 1-dimensional projection on y of dh for bins with x>0")
dh2 = dh.reduce({y}, "x>0")
dh2.Print("v")

>> Creating 1-dimensional projection on y of dh for bins with x>0
DataStore dh (binned version of d)
Contains 10 entries
Observables:
1)  y = 38  L(0 - 40) B(10)  "y"
Binned Dataset dh (binned version of d)
Contains 10 bins with a total weight of 500
Observables:     1)  y = 38  L(0 - 40) B(10)  "y"


Add dh2 to yframe and redraw

In :
dh2.plotOn(yframe, LineColor="r", MarkerColor="r")

Out:
<cppyy.gbl.RooPlot object at 0x920ae00>
[#1] INFO:Plotting -- RooPlot::updateFitRangeNorm: New event count of 500 will supercede previous event count of 1000 for normalization of PDF projections


Datasets can be persisted with ROOT I/O

In :
print("\n >> Persisting d via ROOT I/O")
f = ROOT.TFile("rf402_datahandling.root", "RECREATE")
d.Write()
f.ls()

 >> Persisting d via ROOT I/O
TFile**		rf402_datahandling.root
TFile*		rf402_datahandling.root
KEY: RooDataSet	d;1	d
KEY: TProcessID	ProcessID0;1	5b29c118-d29f-11ec-8b55-942c8a89beef


To read back in future session:

ROOT.TFile f("rf402_datahandling.root") d = (ROOT.RooDataSet*) f.FindObject("d")

In :
c = ROOT.TCanvas("rf402_datahandling", "rf402_datahandling", 600, 600)
yframe.GetYaxis().SetTitleOffset(1.4)
yframe.Draw()

c.SaveAs("rf402_datahandling.png")

Info in <TCanvas::Print>: png file rf402_datahandling.png has been created


Draw all canvases

In :
from ROOT import gROOT
gROOT.GetListOfCanvases().Draw() 