App Profile Profitability Across iOS and Android

As a company focused on developing free mobile apps, in-app ads are a key income source. Driving downloads of created applications drives revenue based on increased views and interactions with these in-app ads. Therefore, it is key to identify app profiles which deliver the most profitability in this sense.

The goal of this project it to do just that, identify which app profiles will consistently deliver the most ad traffic, and, therefore, revenue.

In [1]:
from csv import reader

###Google Play Data###
opened_file = open('googleplaystore.csv')
read_file = reader(opened_file)
android = list(read_file)
android_header = android[0]
android = android[1:]

###iOS Store Data###
opened_file = open('AppleStore.csv')
read_file = reader(opened_file)
ios = list(read_file)
ios_header = ios[0]
ios = ios[1:]
In [2]:
def explore_data(dataset, start, end, rows_and_columns=False):
    dataset_slice = dataset[start:end]    
    for row in dataset_slice:
        print(row)
        print('\n') # adds a new (empty) line after each row

    if rows_and_columns:
        print('Number of rows:', len(dataset))
        print('Number of columns:', len(dataset[0]))
        
print(android_header)
print('\n')
explore_data(android, 0, 3, True)
['App', 'Category', 'Rating', 'Reviews', 'Size', 'Installs', 'Type', 'Price', 'Content Rating', 'Genres', 'Last Updated', 'Current Ver', 'Android Ver']


['Photo Editor & Candy Camera & Grid & ScrapBook', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.1', '159', '19M', '10,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'January 7, 2018', '1.0.0', '4.0.3 and up']


['Coloring book moana', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '3.9', '967', '14M', '500,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design;Pretend Play', 'January 15, 2018', '2.0.0', '4.0.3 and up']


['U Launcher Lite – FREE Live Cool Themes, Hide Apps', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.7', '87510', '8.7M', '5,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'August 1, 2018', '1.2.4', '4.0.3 and up']


Number of rows: 10841
Number of columns: 13
In [3]:
print(ios_header)
print('\n')
explore_data(ios, 0, 3, True)
['id', 'track_name', 'size_bytes', 'currency', 'price', 'rating_count_tot', 'rating_count_ver', 'user_rating', 'user_rating_ver', 'ver', 'cont_rating', 'prime_genre', 'sup_devices.num', 'ipadSc_urls.num', 'lang.num', 'vpp_lic']


['284882215', 'Facebook', '389879808', 'USD', '0.0', '2974676', '212', '3.5', '3.5', '95.0', '4+', 'Social Networking', '37', '1', '29', '1']


['389801252', 'Instagram', '113954816', 'USD', '0.0', '2161558', '1289', '4.5', '4.0', '10.23', '12+', 'Photo & Video', '37', '0', '29', '1']


['529479190', 'Clash of Clans', '116476928', 'USD', '0.0', '2130805', '579', '4.5', '4.5', '9.24.12', '9+', 'Games', '38', '5', '18', '1']


Number of rows: 7197
Number of columns: 16

The android data set returned 10,841 entries with 13 columns. The columns that appear most useful are 'App', 'Category', 'Reviews', 'Installs', 'Type, 'Price', and 'Genre'.

The ios data set returned 7,197 entries with 16 columns. The columns in this group to focus on appear to be 'track_name', 'currency', 'price', 'rating_count_tot', 'rating_count_ver', and 'prime_genre'. These column names are not as intuitive, so descriptions can be found here.

In [4]:
print(android[10472]) #bad data
print('\n')
print(android_header) #header for column count
print('\n')
print(android[0]) #good row example for comparison
['Life Made WI-Fi Touchscreen Photo Frame', '1.9', '19', '3.0M', '1,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', '', 'February 11, 2018', '1.0.19', '4.0 and up']


['App', 'Category', 'Rating', 'Reviews', 'Size', 'Installs', 'Type', 'Price', 'Content Rating', 'Genres', 'Last Updated', 'Current Ver', 'Android Ver']


['Photo Editor & Candy Camera & Grid & ScrapBook', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.1', '159', '19M', '10,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'January 7, 2018', '1.0.0', '4.0.3 and up']
In [5]:
print(len(android))
del android[10472] #only run once
print(len(android))
10841
10840

Above data was excluded due to erroneous data. Upon further review, several rows in the Google Play data are duplicates, as seen when a pass is made through the data looking for 'Instagram'.

In [6]:
for app in android:
    name = app[0]
    if name == 'Instagram':
        print(app)
['Instagram', 'SOCIAL', '4.5', '66577313', 'Varies with device', '1,000,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Teen', 'Social', 'July 31, 2018', 'Varies with device', 'Varies with device']
['Instagram', 'SOCIAL', '4.5', '66577446', 'Varies with device', '1,000,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Teen', 'Social', 'July 31, 2018', 'Varies with device', 'Varies with device']
['Instagram', 'SOCIAL', '4.5', '66577313', 'Varies with device', '1,000,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Teen', 'Social', 'July 31, 2018', 'Varies with device', 'Varies with device']
['Instagram', 'SOCIAL', '4.5', '66509917', 'Varies with device', '1,000,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Teen', 'Social', 'July 31, 2018', 'Varies with device', 'Varies with device']

In total, 1181 instances of duplicated data.

In [7]:
duplicate_apps = []
unique_apps = []

for app in android:
    name = app[0]
    if name in unique_apps:
        duplicate_apps.append(name)
    else:
        unique_apps.append(name)
        
print('Number of duplicate apps: ', len(duplicate_apps))
print('\n')
print('Examples of duplicate apps:', duplicate_apps[:15])
Number of duplicate apps:  1181


Examples of duplicate apps: ['Quick PDF Scanner + OCR FREE', 'Box', 'Google My Business', 'ZOOM Cloud Meetings', 'join.me - Simple Meetings', 'Box', 'Zenefits', 'Google Ads', 'Google My Business', 'Slack', 'FreshBooks Classic', 'Insightly CRM', 'QuickBooks Accounting: Invoicing & Expenses', 'HipChat - Chat Built for Teams', 'Xero Accounting Software']

The plan to exclude duplicates will be tied to total number of reviews. In theory, a higher review count means the data is more recent. Using this logic, only the row with the highest review count will be included in the final data set.

This will involve creating a dictionary that contains each app name paired with its highest review count; followed by using that dictionary to create a working data set with one entry per app associated with the highest listed review count.

In [8]:
reviews_max = {}

for app in android:
    name = app[0]
    n_reviews = float(app[3])
    if name in reviews_max and reviews_max[name] < n_reviews:
        reviews_max[name] = n_reviews
        
    elif name not in reviews_max:
        reviews_max[name] = n_reviews
        
In [9]:
print('Expected length:', len(android) - 1181)
print('Actual length:', len(reviews_max))
Expected length: 9659
Actual length: 9659
In [10]:
android_clean = []
already_added = []

for app in android:
    name = app[0]
    n_reviews = float(app[3])
    if (reviews_max[name] == n_reviews) and (name not in already_added):
        android_clean.append(app)
        already_added.append(name)
        
In [11]:
explore_data(android_clean, 0, 3, True)
['Photo Editor & Candy Camera & Grid & ScrapBook', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.1', '159', '19M', '10,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'January 7, 2018', '1.0.0', '4.0.3 and up']


['U Launcher Lite – FREE Live Cool Themes, Hide Apps', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.7', '87510', '8.7M', '5,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'August 1, 2018', '1.2.4', '4.0.3 and up']


['Sketch - Draw & Paint', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.5', '215644', '25M', '50,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Teen', 'Art & Design', 'June 8, 2018', 'Varies with device', '4.2 and up']


Number of rows: 9659
Number of columns: 13

There are no duplicates in the ios data set.

Our next step will be to remove all non-english apps, given that our company only writes apps for an english speaking audience. To do this we will check text strings against ASCII data (0-127 are english characters).

In [12]:
def is_english(string):
    
    for character in string:
        if ord(character) > 127:
            return False
        
    return True

print(is_english('Instagram'))
print(is_english('爱奇艺PPS -《欢乐颂2》电视剧热播'))
True
False

Quick check of the function is fine, but some english apps utilize special characters. These apps would be excluded using this function as seen below.

In [13]:
print(is_english('Docs To Go™ Free Office Suite'))
print(is_english('Instachat 😜'))

print(ord('™'))
print(ord('😜'))
False
False
8482
128540

To minimize the loss of data, only apps with more than 3 characters outside of the ASCII range (0-127) will be excluded.

In [14]:
def is_english(string):
    non_ascii = 0
    
    for character in string:
        if ord(character) > 127:
            non_ascii += 1
            
    if non_ascii > 3:
        return False
    else:
        return True
        
print(is_english('Docs To Go™ Free Office Suite'))
print(is_english('Instachat 😜'))
print(is_english('爱奇艺PPS -《欢乐颂2》电视剧热播'))
True
True
False
In [15]:
android_english = []
ios_english = []

for app in android_clean:
    name = app[0]
    if is_english(name):
        android_english.append(app)
        
for app in ios:
    name = app[1]
    if is_english(name):
        ios_english.append(app)
        
print(explore_data(android_english, 0, 3, True))
print('\n')
print(explore_data(ios_english, 0, 3, True))
['Photo Editor & Candy Camera & Grid & ScrapBook', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.1', '159', '19M', '10,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'January 7, 2018', '1.0.0', '4.0.3 and up']


['U Launcher Lite – FREE Live Cool Themes, Hide Apps', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.7', '87510', '8.7M', '5,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Everyone', 'Art & Design', 'August 1, 2018', '1.2.4', '4.0.3 and up']


['Sketch - Draw & Paint', 'ART_AND_DESIGN', '4.5', '215644', '25M', '50,000,000+', 'Free', '0', 'Teen', 'Art & Design', 'June 8, 2018', 'Varies with device', '4.2 and up']


Number of rows: 9614
Number of columns: 13
None


['284882215', 'Facebook', '389879808', 'USD', '0.0', '2974676', '212', '3.5', '3.5', '95.0', '4+', 'Social Networking', '37', '1', '29', '1']


['389801252', 'Instagram', '113954816', 'USD', '0.0', '2161558', '1289', '4.5', '4.0', '10.23', '12+', 'Photo & Video', '37', '0', '29', '1']


['529479190', 'Clash of Clans', '116476928', 'USD', '0.0', '2130805', '579', '4.5', '4.5', '9.24.12', '9+', 'Games', '38', '5', '18', '1']


Number of rows: 6183
Number of columns: 16
None

The data has now been scrubbed of all inaccurate, duplicated, and non-english apps. It has left data sets of 9,614 rows for Android, and 6,183 rows for ios.

The company only creates free apps, so the last step is to extract all the free apps.

In [16]:
android_final = []
ios_final = []

for app in android_english:
    price = app[7]
    if price == '0':
        android_final.append(app)
        
for app in ios_english:
    price = app[4]
    if price == '0.0':
        ios_final.append(app)
        
print(len(android_final))
print(len(ios_final))
8864
3222

The data is now scrubbed down to only include free and english apps. It also excludes all inaccurate and duplicated rows.

We are left with 8864 Android rows, and 3222 ios rows. This constitutes enough data to begin our analysis.

Analysis

Our goal is to determine which app types attract the most revenue, because revenue is highly influenced by number of app users.

To minimize risks and overhead, our validation strategy for an app idea is comprised of three steps:

  1. Build a minimal Android version of the app, and add it to Google Play.
  2. If the app has a good response from users, we develop it further.
  3. If the app is profitable after six months, we build an iOS version of the app and add it to the App Store.

The end goal is for apps on both platforms, so it is important to find app profiles that are successful across both operating systems.

To begin, the most common genres for each market need to be identified. To accomplish this frequency tables for certain columns will be created for each data set.

In [17]:
def freq_table(dataset, index):
    table = {}
    total = 0
    
    for row in dataset:
        total += 1
        value = row[index]
        if value in table:
            table[value] += 1
        else:
            table[value] = 1
            
    table_percentages = {}
    for key in table:
        percentage = (table[key] / total) * 100
        table_percentages[key] = percentage
        
    return table_percentages

def display_table(dataset, index):
    table = freq_table(dataset, index)
    table_display = []
    for key in table:
        key_val_as_tuple = (table[key], key)
        table_display.append(key_val_as_tuple)

    table_sorted = sorted(table_display, reverse = True)
    for entry in table_sorted:
        print(entry[1], ':', entry[0])
In [18]:
display_table(ios_final, -5)
Games : 58.16263190564867
Entertainment : 7.883302296710118
Photo & Video : 4.9658597144630665
Education : 3.662321539416512
Social Networking : 3.2898820608317814
Shopping : 2.60707635009311
Utilities : 2.5139664804469275
Sports : 2.1415270018621975
Music : 2.0484171322160147
Health & Fitness : 2.0173805090006205
Productivity : 1.7380509000620732
Lifestyle : 1.5828677839851024
News : 1.3345747982619491
Travel : 1.2414649286157666
Finance : 1.1173184357541899
Weather : 0.8690254500310366
Food & Drink : 0.8069522036002483
Reference : 0.5586592178770949
Business : 0.5276225946617008
Book : 0.4345127250155183
Navigation : 0.186219739292365
Medical : 0.186219739292365
Catalogs : 0.12414649286157665

Upon review of the above ios data it is seen that Games are the most common genre, with Entertainment as the runner-up. There is a steep drop-off seen after games that should be noted. The majority of apps are designed for entertainment. This data alone points to avoiding Games as the genre is heavily saturated. This could also point to a high adoption rate, but not a high utilization rate. It would be difficult for an app to really stand-out without massive overhead increases for design.

In [19]:
display_table(android_final, 1)
FAMILY : 18.907942238267147
GAME : 9.724729241877256
TOOLS : 8.461191335740072
BUSINESS : 4.591606498194946
LIFESTYLE : 3.9034296028880866
PRODUCTIVITY : 3.892148014440433
FINANCE : 3.7003610108303246
MEDICAL : 3.531137184115524
SPORTS : 3.395758122743682
PERSONALIZATION : 3.3167870036101084
COMMUNICATION : 3.2378158844765346
HEALTH_AND_FITNESS : 3.0798736462093865
PHOTOGRAPHY : 2.944494584837545
NEWS_AND_MAGAZINES : 2.7978339350180503
SOCIAL : 2.6624548736462095
TRAVEL_AND_LOCAL : 2.33528880866426
SHOPPING : 2.2450361010830324
BOOKS_AND_REFERENCE : 2.1435018050541514
DATING : 1.861462093862816
VIDEO_PLAYERS : 1.7937725631768955
MAPS_AND_NAVIGATION : 1.3989169675090252
FOOD_AND_DRINK : 1.2409747292418771
EDUCATION : 1.1620036101083033
ENTERTAINMENT : 0.9589350180505415
LIBRARIES_AND_DEMO : 0.9363718411552346
AUTO_AND_VEHICLES : 0.9250902527075812
HOUSE_AND_HOME : 0.8235559566787004
WEATHER : 0.8009927797833934
EVENTS : 0.7107400722021661
PARENTING : 0.6543321299638989
ART_AND_DESIGN : 0.6430505415162455
COMICS : 0.6204873646209386
BEAUTY : 0.5979241877256317

Android apps skew in the opposite direction with more apps focused on practicality in lieu of entertainment when Category data is viewed. Family is the highest rated category with Games as runner-up. It should be noted that apps in the Family category are primarily apps for younger children. The focus on practicality is further illustrated when the percentages are listed for the Genre data below.

In [20]:
display_table(android_final, -4)
Tools : 8.449909747292418
Entertainment : 6.069494584837545
Education : 5.347472924187725
Business : 4.591606498194946
Productivity : 3.892148014440433
Lifestyle : 3.892148014440433
Finance : 3.7003610108303246
Medical : 3.531137184115524
Sports : 3.463447653429603
Personalization : 3.3167870036101084
Communication : 3.2378158844765346
Action : 3.1024368231046933
Health & Fitness : 3.0798736462093865
Photography : 2.944494584837545
News & Magazines : 2.7978339350180503
Social : 2.6624548736462095
Travel & Local : 2.3240072202166067
Shopping : 2.2450361010830324
Books & Reference : 2.1435018050541514
Simulation : 2.0419675090252705
Dating : 1.861462093862816
Arcade : 1.8501805054151623
Video Players & Editors : 1.7712093862815883
Casual : 1.7599277978339352
Maps & Navigation : 1.3989169675090252
Food & Drink : 1.2409747292418771
Puzzle : 1.128158844765343
Racing : 0.9927797833935018
Role Playing : 0.9363718411552346
Libraries & Demo : 0.9363718411552346
Auto & Vehicles : 0.9250902527075812
Strategy : 0.9138086642599278
House & Home : 0.8235559566787004
Weather : 0.8009927797833934
Events : 0.7107400722021661
Adventure : 0.6768953068592057
Comics : 0.6092057761732852
Beauty : 0.5979241877256317
Art & Design : 0.5979241877256317
Parenting : 0.4963898916967509
Card : 0.45126353790613716
Casino : 0.42870036101083037
Trivia : 0.41741877256317694
Educational;Education : 0.39485559566787
Board : 0.3835740072202166
Educational : 0.3722924187725632
Education;Education : 0.33844765342960287
Word : 0.2594765342960289
Casual;Pretend Play : 0.236913357400722
Music : 0.2030685920577617
Racing;Action & Adventure : 0.16922382671480143
Puzzle;Brain Games : 0.16922382671480143
Entertainment;Music & Video : 0.16922382671480143
Casual;Brain Games : 0.13537906137184114
Casual;Action & Adventure : 0.13537906137184114
Arcade;Action & Adventure : 0.12409747292418773
Action;Action & Adventure : 0.10153429602888085
Educational;Pretend Play : 0.09025270758122744
Simulation;Action & Adventure : 0.078971119133574
Parenting;Education : 0.078971119133574
Entertainment;Brain Games : 0.078971119133574
Board;Brain Games : 0.078971119133574
Parenting;Music & Video : 0.06768953068592057
Educational;Brain Games : 0.06768953068592057
Casual;Creativity : 0.06768953068592057
Art & Design;Creativity : 0.06768953068592057
Education;Pretend Play : 0.056407942238267145
Role Playing;Pretend Play : 0.04512635379061372
Education;Creativity : 0.04512635379061372
Role Playing;Action & Adventure : 0.033844765342960284
Puzzle;Action & Adventure : 0.033844765342960284
Entertainment;Creativity : 0.033844765342960284
Entertainment;Action & Adventure : 0.033844765342960284
Educational;Creativity : 0.033844765342960284
Educational;Action & Adventure : 0.033844765342960284
Education;Music & Video : 0.033844765342960284
Education;Brain Games : 0.033844765342960284
Education;Action & Adventure : 0.033844765342960284
Adventure;Action & Adventure : 0.033844765342960284
Video Players & Editors;Music & Video : 0.02256317689530686
Sports;Action & Adventure : 0.02256317689530686
Simulation;Pretend Play : 0.02256317689530686
Puzzle;Creativity : 0.02256317689530686
Music;Music & Video : 0.02256317689530686
Entertainment;Pretend Play : 0.02256317689530686
Casual;Education : 0.02256317689530686
Board;Action & Adventure : 0.02256317689530686
Video Players & Editors;Creativity : 0.01128158844765343
Trivia;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Travel & Local;Action & Adventure : 0.01128158844765343
Tools;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Strategy;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Strategy;Creativity : 0.01128158844765343
Strategy;Action & Adventure : 0.01128158844765343
Simulation;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Role Playing;Brain Games : 0.01128158844765343
Racing;Pretend Play : 0.01128158844765343
Puzzle;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Parenting;Brain Games : 0.01128158844765343
Music & Audio;Music & Video : 0.01128158844765343
Lifestyle;Pretend Play : 0.01128158844765343
Lifestyle;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Health & Fitness;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Health & Fitness;Action & Adventure : 0.01128158844765343
Entertainment;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Communication;Creativity : 0.01128158844765343
Comics;Creativity : 0.01128158844765343
Casual;Music & Video : 0.01128158844765343
Card;Action & Adventure : 0.01128158844765343
Books & Reference;Education : 0.01128158844765343
Art & Design;Pretend Play : 0.01128158844765343
Art & Design;Action & Adventure : 0.01128158844765343
Arcade;Pretend Play : 0.01128158844765343
Adventure;Education : 0.01128158844765343

The difference between Category and Genre comes to the forefront when granularity is considered. The big picture is all that needs to be considered, so Category will only be considered going forward.

The next step is to get an idea of which app profiles have the most users. In Android we can just compare the Installs, but ios is a little different. Install data isn't tracked, so user ratings will be substituted using average number of ratings per genre in place of Installs.

In [21]:
genres_ios = freq_table(ios_final, -5)

for genre in genres_ios:
    total = 0
    len_genre = 0
    for app in ios_final:
        genre_app = app[-5]
        if genre_app == genre:
            n_ratings = float(app[5])
            total += n_ratings
            len_genre += 1
    avg_n_ratings = total / len_genre
    print(genre, ':', avg_n_ratings)
News : 21248.023255813954
Games : 22788.6696905016
Lifestyle : 16485.764705882353
Travel : 28243.8
Navigation : 86090.33333333333
Medical : 612.0
Utilities : 18684.456790123455
Health & Fitness : 23298.015384615384
Book : 39758.5
Photo & Video : 28441.54375
Music : 57326.530303030304
Catalogs : 4004.0
Reference : 74942.11111111111
Food & Drink : 33333.92307692308
Education : 7003.983050847458
Weather : 52279.892857142855
Business : 7491.117647058823
Productivity : 21028.410714285714
Sports : 23008.898550724636
Finance : 31467.944444444445
Social Networking : 71548.34905660378
Shopping : 26919.690476190477
Entertainment : 14029.830708661417

Navigation has the highest average rating, but this can be attributed to included navigation services or third party apps like WAZE which have a high user count as seen below.

In [22]:
for app in ios_final:
    if app[-5] == 'Navigation':
        print(app[1], ':', avg_n_ratings)
Waze - GPS Navigation, Maps & Real-time Traffic : 14029.830708661417
Google Maps - Navigation & Transit : 14029.830708661417
Geocaching® : 14029.830708661417
CoPilot GPS – Car Navigation & Offline Maps : 14029.830708661417
ImmobilienScout24: Real Estate Search in Germany : 14029.830708661417
Railway Route Search : 14029.830708661417

Music and Social Networking fall victim to this same phenomenon due to apps for music like Spotify and Pandora; or Facebook and Instagram for social networking.

This pattern makes Navigation, Music, and Social Networking look like more popular genres than they are in actuality.

The Reference category presents this same dilemma because, although the genre has 74,942 ratings, the majority are for two apps: The Bible and Dictionary.com. This is illustrated below as well.

In [23]:
for app in ios_final:
    if app[-5] == 'Reference':
        print(app[1], ':', avg_n_ratings)
Bible : 14029.830708661417
Dictionary.com Dictionary & Thesaurus : 14029.830708661417
Dictionary.com Dictionary & Thesaurus for iPad : 14029.830708661417
Google Translate : 14029.830708661417
Muslim Pro: Ramadan 2017 Prayer Times, Azan, Quran : 14029.830708661417
New Furniture Mods - Pocket Wiki & Game Tools for Minecraft PC Edition : 14029.830708661417
Merriam-Webster Dictionary : 14029.830708661417
Night Sky : 14029.830708661417
City Maps for Minecraft PE - The Best Maps for Minecraft Pocket Edition (MCPE) : 14029.830708661417
LUCKY BLOCK MOD ™ for Minecraft PC Edition - The Best Pocket Wiki & Mods Installer Tools : 14029.830708661417
GUNS MODS for Minecraft PC Edition - Mods Tools : 14029.830708661417
Guides for Pokémon GO - Pokemon GO News and Cheats : 14029.830708661417
WWDC : 14029.830708661417
Horror Maps for Minecraft PE - Download The Scariest Maps for Minecraft Pocket Edition (MCPE) Free : 14029.830708661417
VPN Express : 14029.830708661417
Real Bike Traffic Rider Virtual Reality Glasses : 14029.830708661417
教えて!goo : 14029.830708661417
Jishokun-Japanese English Dictionary & Translator : 14029.830708661417

Despite this, there might be some potential here. The Bible and the dictionary are two key reference materials for many users, so they are often utilized by those that would download them. Perhaps another reference book could be added with enhanced features. The app could send daily quotes, include the audio book, or even feature quizzes that match the user to characters.

Factoring in the assumptions listed above about games, i.e. over-saturation of the genre and therefore recreational apps, this might be a good fit pending comparison to the Android data.

In [24]:
display_table(android_final, 5)
1,000,000+ : 15.726534296028879
100,000+ : 11.552346570397113
10,000,000+ : 10.548285198555957
10,000+ : 10.198555956678701
1,000+ : 8.393501805054152
100+ : 6.915613718411552
5,000,000+ : 6.825361010830325
500,000+ : 5.561823104693141
50,000+ : 4.7721119133574
5,000+ : 4.512635379061372
10+ : 3.5424187725631766
500+ : 3.2490974729241873
50,000,000+ : 2.3014440433213
100,000,000+ : 2.1322202166064983
50+ : 1.917870036101083
5+ : 0.78971119133574
1+ : 0.5076714801444043
500,000,000+ : 0.2707581227436823
1,000,000,000+ : 0.22563176895306858
0+ : 0.04512635379061372
0 : 0.01128158844765343

The Android Installs are good data, but a little imprecise. The numbers will be left alone and extra characters excluded. This means an app rated at 500+ will be assumed to be 500 even if it could be up to 999. Again, it is just the big picture being considered.

In [25]:
categories_android = freq_table(android_final, 1)

for category in categories_android:
    total = 0
    len_category = 0
    for app in android_final:
        category_app = app[1]
        if category_app == category:
            n_installs = app[5]
            n_installs = n_installs.replace('+', '')
            n_installs = n_installs.replace(',', '')
            total += float(n_installs)
            len_category += 1
    avg_n_installs = total / len_category
    print(category, ':', avg_n_installs)   
BOOKS_AND_REFERENCE : 8767811.894736841
PRODUCTIVITY : 16787331.344927534
ART_AND_DESIGN : 1986335.0877192982
EDUCATION : 1833495.145631068
AUTO_AND_VEHICLES : 647317.8170731707
LIFESTYLE : 1437816.2687861272
TOOLS : 10801391.298666667
COMMUNICATION : 38456119.167247385
GAME : 15588015.603248259
PHOTOGRAPHY : 17840110.40229885
VIDEO_PLAYERS : 24727872.452830188
HEALTH_AND_FITNESS : 4188821.9853479853
HOUSE_AND_HOME : 1331540.5616438356
FAMILY : 3695641.8198090694
TRAVEL_AND_LOCAL : 13984077.710144928
NEWS_AND_MAGAZINES : 9549178.467741935
EVENTS : 253542.22222222222
MEDICAL : 120550.61980830671
PERSONALIZATION : 5201482.6122448975
BEAUTY : 513151.88679245283
MAPS_AND_NAVIGATION : 4056941.7741935486
BUSINESS : 1712290.1474201474
SPORTS : 3638640.1428571427
SHOPPING : 7036877.311557789
COMICS : 817657.2727272727
ENTERTAINMENT : 11640705.88235294
SOCIAL : 23253652.127118643
DATING : 854028.8303030303
WEATHER : 5074486.197183099
PARENTING : 542603.6206896552
LIBRARIES_AND_DEMO : 638503.734939759
FOOD_AND_DRINK : 1924897.7363636363
FINANCE : 1387692.475609756

Communication has the highest number of install, but this is skewed by a few apps with over a billion installs as seen below.

In [26]:
for app in android_final:
    if app[1] == 'COMMUNICATION' and (app[5] == '1,000,000,000+'
                                      or app[5] == '500,000,000+'
                                      or app[5] == '100,000,000+'):
        print(app[0], ':', app[5])
        
WhatsApp Messenger : 1,000,000,000+
imo beta free calls and text : 100,000,000+
Android Messages : 100,000,000+
Google Duo - High Quality Video Calls : 500,000,000+
Messenger – Text and Video Chat for Free : 1,000,000,000+
imo free video calls and chat : 500,000,000+
Skype - free IM & video calls : 1,000,000,000+
Who : 100,000,000+
GO SMS Pro - Messenger, Free Themes, Emoji : 100,000,000+
LINE: Free Calls & Messages : 500,000,000+
Google Chrome: Fast & Secure : 1,000,000,000+
Firefox Browser fast & private : 100,000,000+
UC Browser - Fast Download Private & Secure : 500,000,000+
Gmail : 1,000,000,000+
Hangouts : 1,000,000,000+
Messenger Lite: Free Calls & Messages : 100,000,000+
Kik : 100,000,000+
KakaoTalk: Free Calls & Text : 100,000,000+
Opera Mini - fast web browser : 100,000,000+
Opera Browser: Fast and Secure : 100,000,000+
Telegram : 100,000,000+
Truecaller: Caller ID, SMS spam blocking & Dialer : 100,000,000+
UC Browser Mini -Tiny Fast Private & Secure : 100,000,000+
Viber Messenger : 500,000,000+
WeChat : 100,000,000+
Yahoo Mail – Stay Organized : 100,000,000+
BBM - Free Calls & Messages : 100,000,000+

The average installs drop by roughly 10 times when all Communication apps with over 100,000,000 installs are excluded, per below

In [27]:
under_100_m = []

for app in android_final:
    n_installs = app[5]
    n_installs = n_installs.replace('+', '')
    n_installs = n_installs.replace(',', '')
    if (app[1] == 'COMMUNICATION') and (float(n_installs) < 100000000):
        under_100_m.append(float(n_installs))
        
sum(under_100_m) / len(under_100_m)
Out[27]:
3603485.3884615386

This trend follows fairly closely with the Genres mentioned from ios, especially Games and Social. It is worth noting that many of the apps on Android have some big players that would be hard to compete against, i.e. Google. Google has many apps across the categories with the most installs.

Books and Reference seem quite popular on Android, but it is worth looking at more closely given its promise on the ios platform.

In [28]:
for app in android_final:
    if app[1] == 'BOOKS_AND_REFERENCE':
        print(app[0], ':', app[5])
E-Book Read - Read Book for free : 50,000+
Download free book with green book : 100,000+
Wikipedia : 10,000,000+
Cool Reader : 10,000,000+
Free Panda Radio Music : 100,000+
Book store : 1,000,000+
FBReader: Favorite Book Reader : 10,000,000+
English Grammar Complete Handbook : 500,000+
Free Books - Spirit Fanfiction and Stories : 1,000,000+
Google Play Books : 1,000,000,000+
AlReader -any text book reader : 5,000,000+
Offline English Dictionary : 100,000+
Offline: English to Tagalog Dictionary : 500,000+
FamilySearch Tree : 1,000,000+
Cloud of Books : 1,000,000+
Recipes of Prophetic Medicine for free : 500,000+
ReadEra – free ebook reader : 1,000,000+
Anonymous caller detection : 10,000+
Ebook Reader : 5,000,000+
Litnet - E-books : 100,000+
Read books online : 5,000,000+
English to Urdu Dictionary : 500,000+
eBoox: book reader fb2 epub zip : 1,000,000+
English Persian Dictionary : 500,000+
Flybook : 500,000+
All Maths Formulas : 1,000,000+
Ancestry : 5,000,000+
HTC Help : 10,000,000+
English translation from Bengali : 100,000+
Pdf Book Download - Read Pdf Book : 100,000+
Free Book Reader : 100,000+
eBoox new: Reader for fb2 epub zip books : 50,000+
Only 30 days in English, the guideline is guaranteed : 500,000+
Moon+ Reader : 10,000,000+
SH-02J Owner's Manual (Android 8.0) : 50,000+
English-Myanmar Dictionary : 1,000,000+
Golden Dictionary (EN-AR) : 1,000,000+
All Language Translator Free : 1,000,000+
Azpen eReader : 500,000+
URBANO V 02 instruction manual : 100,000+
Bible : 100,000,000+
C Programs and Reference : 50,000+
C Offline Tutorial : 1,000+
C Programs Handbook : 50,000+
Amazon Kindle : 100,000,000+
Aab e Hayat Full Novel : 100,000+
Aldiko Book Reader : 10,000,000+
Google I/O 2018 : 500,000+
R Language Reference Guide : 10,000+
Learn R Programming Full : 5,000+
R Programing Offline Tutorial : 1,000+
Guide for R Programming : 5+
Learn R Programming : 10+
R Quick Reference Big Data : 1,000+
V Made : 100,000+
Wattpad 📖 Free Books : 100,000,000+
Dictionary - WordWeb : 5,000,000+
Guide (for X-MEN) : 100,000+
AC Air condition Troubleshoot,Repair,Maintenance : 5,000+
AE Bulletins : 1,000+
Ae Allah na Dai (Rasa) : 10,000+
50000 Free eBooks & Free AudioBooks : 5,000,000+
Ag PhD Field Guide : 10,000+
Ag PhD Deficiencies : 10,000+
Ag PhD Planting Population Calculator : 1,000+
Ag PhD Soybean Diseases : 1,000+
Fertilizer Removal By Crop : 50,000+
A-J Media Vault : 50+
Al-Quran (Free) : 10,000,000+
Al Quran (Tafsir & by Word) : 500,000+
Al Quran Indonesia : 10,000,000+
Al'Quran Bahasa Indonesia : 10,000,000+
Al Quran Al karim : 1,000,000+
Al-Muhaffiz : 50,000+
Al Quran : EAlim - Translations & MP3 Offline : 5,000,000+
Al-Quran 30 Juz free copies : 500,000+
Koran Read &MP3 30 Juz Offline : 1,000,000+
Hafizi Quran 15 lines per page : 1,000,000+
Quran for Android : 10,000,000+
Surah Al-Waqiah : 100,000+
Hisnul Al Muslim - Hisn Invocations & Adhkaar : 100,000+
Satellite AR : 1,000,000+
Audiobooks from Audible : 100,000,000+
Kinot & Eichah for Tisha B'Av : 10,000+
AW Tozer Devotionals - Daily : 5,000+
Tozer Devotional -Series 1 : 1,000+
The Pursuit of God : 1,000+
AY Sing : 5,000+
Ay Hasnain k Nana Milad Naat : 10,000+
Ay Mohabbat Teri Khatir Novel : 10,000+
Arizona Statutes, ARS (AZ Law) : 1,000+
Oxford A-Z of English Usage : 1,000,000+
BD Fishpedia : 1,000+
BD All Sim Offer : 10,000+
Youboox - Livres, BD et magazines : 500,000+
B&H Kids AR : 10,000+
B y H Niños ES : 5,000+
Dictionary.com: Find Definitions for English Words : 10,000,000+
English Dictionary - Offline : 10,000,000+
Bible KJV : 5,000,000+
Borneo Bible, BM Bible : 10,000+
MOD Black for BM : 100+
BM Box : 1,000+
Anime Mod for BM : 100+
NOOK: Read eBooks & Magazines : 10,000,000+
NOOK Audiobooks : 500,000+
NOOK App for NOOK Devices : 500,000+
Browsery by Barnes & Noble : 5,000+
bp e-store : 1,000+
Brilliant Quotes: Life, Love, Family & Motivation : 1,000,000+
BR Ambedkar Biography & Quotes : 10,000+
BU Alsace : 100+
Catholic La Bu Zo Kam : 500+
Khrifa Hla Bu (Solfa) : 10+
Kristian Hla Bu : 10,000+
SA HLA BU : 1,000+
Learn SAP BW : 500+
Learn SAP BW on HANA : 500+
CA Laws 2018 (California Laws and Codes) : 5,000+
Bootable Methods(USB-CD-DVD) : 10,000+
cloudLibrary : 100,000+
SDA Collegiate Quarterly : 500+
Sabbath School : 100,000+
Cypress College Library : 100+
Stats Royale for Clash Royale : 1,000,000+
GATE 21 years CS Papers(2011-2018 Solved) : 50+
Learn CT Scan Of Head : 5,000+
Easy Cv maker 2018 : 10,000+
How to Write CV : 100,000+
CW Nuclear : 1,000+
CY Spray nozzle : 10+
BibleRead En Cy Zh Yue : 5+
CZ-Help : 5+
Modlitební knížka CZ : 500+
Guide for DB Xenoverse : 10,000+
Guide for DB Xenoverse 2 : 10,000+
Guide for IMS DB : 10+
DC HSEMA : 5,000+
DC Public Library : 1,000+
Painting Lulu DC Super Friends : 1,000+
Dictionary : 10,000,000+
Fix Error Google Playstore : 1,000+
D. H. Lawrence Poems FREE : 1,000+
Bilingual Dictionary Audio App : 5,000+
DM Screen : 10,000+
wikiHow: how to do anything : 1,000,000+
Dr. Doug's Tips : 1,000+
Bible du Semeur-BDS (French) : 50,000+
La citadelle du musulman : 50,000+
DV 2019 Entry Guide : 10,000+
DV 2019 - EDV Photo & Form : 50,000+
DV 2018 Winners Guide : 1,000+
EB Annual Meetings : 1,000+
EC - AP & Telangana : 5,000+
TN Patta Citta & EC : 10,000+
AP Stamps and Registration : 10,000+
CompactiMa EC pH Calibration : 100+
EGW Writings 2 : 100,000+
EGW Writings : 1,000,000+
Bible with EGW Comments : 100,000+
My Little Pony AR Guide : 1,000,000+
SDA Sabbath School Quarterly : 500,000+
Duaa Ek Ibaadat : 5,000+
Spanish English Translator : 10,000,000+
Dictionary - Merriam-Webster : 10,000,000+
JW Library : 10,000,000+
Oxford Dictionary of English : Free : 10,000,000+
English Hindi Dictionary : 10,000,000+
English to Hindi Dictionary : 5,000,000+
EP Research Service : 1,000+
Hymnes et Louanges : 100,000+
EU Charter : 1,000+
EU Data Protection : 1,000+
EU IP Codes : 100+
EW PDF : 5+
BakaReader EX : 100,000+
EZ Quran : 50,000+
FA Part 1 & 2 Past Papers Solved Free – Offline : 5,000+
La Fe de Jesus : 1,000+
La Fe de Jesús : 500+
Le Fe de Jesus : 500+
Florida - Pocket Brainbook : 1,000+
Florida Statutes (FL Code) : 1,000+
English To Shona Dictionary : 10,000+
Greek Bible FP (Audio) : 1,000+
Golden Dictionary (FR-AR) : 500,000+
Fanfic-FR : 5,000+
Bulgarian French Dictionary Fr : 10,000+
Chemin (fr) : 1,000+
The SCP Foundation DB fr nn5n : 1,000+

This category houses more than just the Books genre in ios. There are multiple catalogs, apps, and reference materials for subjects like coding, religion, geneaology, and ebook readers.

Again, the trend seems to be a few highly installed apps are distorting our view.

In [29]:
for app in android_final:
    if app[1] == 'BOOKS_AND_REFERENCE' and (app[5] == '1,000,000,000+'
                                      or app[5] == '500,000,000+'
                                      or app[5] == '100,000,000+'):
        print(app[0], ':', app[5])
Google Play Books : 1,000,000,000+
Bible : 100,000,000+
Amazon Kindle : 100,000,000+
Wattpad 📖 Free Books : 100,000,000+
Audiobooks from Audible : 100,000,000+

Accounting for these apps, there seems to be some room left in the middle of the pack. The list of apps with 1,000,000 to 100,000,000 installs is below.

In [30]:
for app in android_final:
    if app[1] == 'BOOKS_AND_REFERENCE' and (app[5] == '1,000,000+'
                                          or app[5] == '5,000,000+'
                                          or app[5] == '10,000,000+'
                                          or app[5] == '50,000,000+'):  
                                        
        print(app[0], ':', app[5])
Wikipedia : 10,000,000+
Cool Reader : 10,000,000+
Book store : 1,000,000+
FBReader: Favorite Book Reader : 10,000,000+
Free Books - Spirit Fanfiction and Stories : 1,000,000+
AlReader -any text book reader : 5,000,000+
FamilySearch Tree : 1,000,000+
Cloud of Books : 1,000,000+
ReadEra – free ebook reader : 1,000,000+
Ebook Reader : 5,000,000+
Read books online : 5,000,000+
eBoox: book reader fb2 epub zip : 1,000,000+
All Maths Formulas : 1,000,000+
Ancestry : 5,000,000+
HTC Help : 10,000,000+
Moon+ Reader : 10,000,000+
English-Myanmar Dictionary : 1,000,000+
Golden Dictionary (EN-AR) : 1,000,000+
All Language Translator Free : 1,000,000+
Aldiko Book Reader : 10,000,000+
Dictionary - WordWeb : 5,000,000+
50000 Free eBooks & Free AudioBooks : 5,000,000+
Al-Quran (Free) : 10,000,000+
Al Quran Indonesia : 10,000,000+
Al'Quran Bahasa Indonesia : 10,000,000+
Al Quran Al karim : 1,000,000+
Al Quran : EAlim - Translations & MP3 Offline : 5,000,000+
Koran Read &MP3 30 Juz Offline : 1,000,000+
Hafizi Quran 15 lines per page : 1,000,000+
Quran for Android : 10,000,000+
Satellite AR : 1,000,000+
Oxford A-Z of English Usage : 1,000,000+
Dictionary.com: Find Definitions for English Words : 10,000,000+
English Dictionary - Offline : 10,000,000+
Bible KJV : 5,000,000+
NOOK: Read eBooks & Magazines : 10,000,000+
Brilliant Quotes: Life, Love, Family & Motivation : 1,000,000+
Stats Royale for Clash Royale : 1,000,000+
Dictionary : 10,000,000+
wikiHow: how to do anything : 1,000,000+
EGW Writings : 1,000,000+
My Little Pony AR Guide : 1,000,000+
Spanish English Translator : 10,000,000+
Dictionary - Merriam-Webster : 10,000,000+
JW Library : 10,000,000+
Oxford Dictionary of English : Free : 10,000,000+
English Hindi Dictionary : 10,000,000+
English to Hindi Dictionary : 5,000,000+

This portion of the category is full of references in the form of dictionaries and libraries, along with software for reading ebooks. There are several apps for the Quran, which indicates there is potential to turn an existing book into a good reference app. This market is flooded with simple library apps, so whatever book is developed must have new features (quizzes, audio, quote generator, forums) to stand out further. It is also recommended that the