Analyzing CIA Factbook Data Using SQL

Introduction

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. It is frequently used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles.

The World Factbook provides basic intelligence on the history, people, government, economy, energy, geography, environment, communications, transportation, military, terrorism, and transnational issues for 266 world entities.

A wide variety of folks including US Government officials, researchers, news organizations, corporations, geographers, travelers, teachers, professors, librarians, and students access this resource. In short, anyone looking for an expansive body of international data on a recently updated Web site. The World Factbook is visited by tens of millions of visitors annually and is especially popular during the school year, with a noticeable drop-off in online visits during the summer months. In all, The World Factbook is one of the US Government’s most popular Web sites.

In this project, we'll work with data from the CIA World Factbook found here, a compendium of statistics about all of the countries on Earth.

I did plenty of extra research over and above what is called for in this Guided Project and came across very interesting information. For example, you will find out what island is know as "Mutiny on The Bounty" Island and hear some interesting things about it via Youtube Video.</span>

In [1]:
%%capture
%load_ext sql
%sql sqlite:///factbook.db
In [2]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: display all information of tables in factbook database.
    
SELECT *
  FROM sqlite_master
 WHERE type='table';
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[2]:
type name tbl_name rootpage sql
table sqlite_sequence sqlite_sequence 3 CREATE TABLE sqlite_sequence(name,seq)
table facts facts 47 CREATE TABLE "facts" ("id" INTEGER PRIMARY KEY AUTOINCREMENT NOT NULL, "code" varchar(255) NOT NULL, "name" varchar(255) NOT NULL, "area" integer, "area_land" integer, "area_water" integer, "population" integer, "population_growth" float, "birth_rate" float, "death_rate" float, "migration_rate" float)

Table Description

Here are descriptions for some of the columns:

  • name — the name of the country.
  • area — the country's total area (both land and water).
  • area_land — the country's land area in square kilometers.
  • area_water — the country's water area in square kilometers.
  • population — the country's population.
  • population_growth — the country's population growth as a percentage.
  • birth_rate — the country's birth rate, or the number of births per year per 1,000 people.
  • death_rate — the country's death rate, or the number of death per year per 1,000 people.
In [3]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: observe the first five rows of the table content.
    
SELECT *
 FROM facts
LIMIT 5;    
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[3]:
id code name area area_land area_water population population_growth birth_rate death_rate migration_rate
1 af Afghanistan 652230 652230 0 32564342 2.32 38.57 13.89 1.51
2 al Albania 28748 27398 1350 3029278 0.3 12.92 6.58 3.3
3 ag Algeria 2381741 2381741 0 39542166 1.84 23.67 4.31 0.92
4 an Andorra 468 468 0 85580 0.12 8.13 6.96 0.0
5 ao Angola 1246700 1246700 0 19625353 2.78 38.78 11.49 0.46

Questions

1. What is the minimum population of a country in the world?

2. What is the maximum population of a country in the world?

3. What is the minimum population growth of a country in the world?

4. What is the maximum population growth of a country in the world?

In [4]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: Check out reasonableness on Min and Max values for population and population growth.
    
SELECT MIN(population) AS Minimum_Population,
       MAX(population) AS Maximum_Population,
       MIN(population_growth) AS Minimum_Pop_Growth,
       MAX(population_growth) AS Maximum_Pop_Growth
  FROM facts;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[4]:
Minimum_Population Maximum_Population Minimum_Pop_Growth Maximum_Pop_Growth
0 7256490011 0.0 4.02

Crazy Numbers!

Neither the minimum (0) nor maximum (7,256,490,011) populations look reasonable for any specific country. The maximum value is actually the total world population.

In order to answer the questions posed further above, we need to do some data cleaning. Yes!! The joy of data analysis!!

Population

In [5]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: reveal the top 25 rows of poulation with lowest values
-- to determine how many countries show 0 population.

SELECT name AS Country, population AS Population
  FROM facts
ORDER BY population
LIMIT 25;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[5]:
Country Population
Ashmore and Cartier Islands None
Coral Sea Islands None
Heard Island and McDonald Islands None
Clipperton Island None
French Southern and Antarctic Lands None
Bouvet Island None
Jan Mayen None
British Indian Ocean Territory None
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands None
Navassa Island None
Wake Island None
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges None
Paracel Islands None
Spratly Islands None
Arctic Ocean None
Atlantic Ocean None
Indian Ocean None
Pacific Ocean None
Southern Ocean None
Antarctica 0
Pitcairn Islands 48
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 596
Holy See (Vatican City) 842
Niue 1190
Tokelau 1337

Observations

We see there is only one country with 0 population; Antactica.

Antarctica is known for being the highest, driest, coldest and windiest continent on earth. ... Although there are no native Antarcticans and no permanent residents or citizens of Antarctica, many people do live in Antarctica each year. So, since there are no permanent residents, then on that basis the populaiton is deemed to be 0.

There are 19 countries that have 'None" assigned to population.

In [6]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: reveal the top 10 rows of poulation with highest values
-- to determine if there are any other unreasonable high population values.

SELECT name AS Country, population AS Population
  FROM facts
ORDER BY population DESC
LIMIT 5;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[6]:
Country Population
World 7256490011
China 1367485388
India 1251695584
European Union 513949445
United States 321368864

Observation

It looks like there is only one large population value that is unreasonable for a country population; "World".

In [7]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: remove unreasonable population values to determine correct minimum abd maximum values.

SELECT MIN(population) AS Minimum_Population,
       MAX(population) AS Maximum_Population,
       MIN(population_growth) AS Minimum_Pop_Growth,
       MAX(population_growth) AS Maximum_Pop_Growth
  FROM facts
WHERE (population > 0) AND (population < 7000000000) AND (population != 'None');
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[7]:
Minimum_Population Maximum_Population Minimum_Pop_Growth Maximum_Pop_Growth
48 1367485388 0.0 4.02

Observations - Population

We now have a number greater than 0 for minimum (48) and a number less than the world population for maximum (1,367,485,388).

Let's find out what countries those belong to.

In [8]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: request minimum and maximum values by calling out exact values with WHERE code.


SELECT name AS Country, population AS Population
  FROM facts
 WHERE (population = 48) OR (population = 1367485388);   
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[8]:
Country Population
China 1367485388
Pitcairn Islands 48

Observations - Population

I think most everyone knows that China has the largest population.

First settled by mutineers in 1790, with a population of 48, Pitcairn is a British Overseas Territory (map below) and is considered the world's smallest country by population and is only slightly larger than Monaco.

The Pitcairn Islands group is a British Overseas Territory. It comprises the islands of Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno. Pitcairn, the only inhabited island, is a small volcanic outcrop situated in the South Pacific at latitude 25.04 south and longitude 130.06 west. It is roughly 2170km (1350 miles) east south-east of Tahiti and just over 6600km (4100 miles) from Panama. The Islands' administrative headquarters are situated in Auckland New Zealand, 5310km (3300 miles) away. MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION ON PITCAIRN TO COME!!

PI4.jpg

Population Growth

Population growth output shown further above revealed maximum as 4.02 and minimum as 0.0. The units for these values is percent. The value 4.02 as a percent doesn't seem unreasonable as a maximum. It's possible that the minimum value of 0.0 could be authentic.

Let's find out what countries have these values.

In [9]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: identify the countries with lowest and highest population growth values.

SELECT name AS Country, population_growth AS Population_Growth, death_rate AS Death_Rate, birth_rate AS Birth_Rate
  FROM facts
 WHERE (population_growth = 0.0) OR (population_growth = 4.02);   
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[9]:
Country Population_Growth Death_Rate Birth_Rate
South Sudan 4.02 8.18 36.91
Holy See (Vatican City) 0.0 None None
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 0.0 None None
Greenland 0.0 8.49 14.48
Pitcairn Islands 0.0 None None

Observations - Population Growth

Maximum population growth: South Sudan is shown to be the one with maximum population growth. Looking at the ratio of birth rate to death rate (36.91/8.18 = 4.51) certainly contributes to the high population growth. the calculated value of 4.02 is valid for a specific year around 2009 and 2010 according to the South Sudan annual growth rate graph below. The graph shows growth rate fluctuation to be very high year to year. The most recent growth rate shown for 2019 is only 0.78.

Minimum population growth: There are four "countries" shown above for which population growth rate is reported as 0. Are these correct? Let's find out with further research.

First, let's see the definition of population growth rate that the "CIA World Factbook" bases their growth rate calulations on.

Population Growth Definition: The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Vatican City: Here is a statment I found that seems to justify 0 population growth to be reported by "CIA World Factbook", "Vatican City is the only state in the world with a zero birth rate. This is explained by the fact that there are no maternity hospitals within the territory of this small state. The babies of this enclave's citizens are born in Roman hospitals."

Cocos (Keeling) Island The Cocos Island growth rate graph below, indicates growth reate was 0 from 2003 to 2014. From what I've read, that seems to have remained at 0 with little or no information on reasons why no change.

Greenland Looking at the Greenland population growth rate graph further below, we see that population growth has been hovering around zero from 1993 to present. In fact population growth rate is projected to consistently be negative in the future. Information from an article titled, "AWI Comments on Greenland’s Methods for Calculating Aboriginal Subsistence Need" states the following:

  • Greenland’s population is declining. Greenland’s methodology does not acknowledge that most of the population increase in Greenland from 1985 to 2012 occurred in the 1980s and 1990s but has slowed since then and that its population is now contracting based on Greenland’s own statistical data. A recent government publication, “Greenland in Figures, 2014,” shows that the 2014 population (56,282) is lower than in 2002 (56,545) and is expected to decrease further. The front page of the self-rule government’s Statistics Greenland website dated May 15, 2014 announces that the total population “is over the next 20 years projected to decline from todays 56,282 persons to 55,900 in 2020 and 54,800 in 2030”. The projected decline can partly be attributed to a fall in the total fertility rate to 2.0 children per woman in Greenland (below the replacement level for population stability of 2.1 children). In addition, emigration consistently exceeds immigration.

Pitcairn is well known as the "Mutiny on the Bounty" Island. Here is a very interesting discussion on Youtube titled "Pitcairn Islands Face Extinction", that's validates the reason why Pitcairn population growth is currently declared to be 0.

South%20Sudan2.jpg

Cocos.jpg

Greenland.jpg

Question - Most Densely Populated Countries

What countries have population above average AND total land area below average?

NOTE:

We have already identified unrealistic populations and will exclude those from calculating average population.

We need to determine if there are any unrealistic country "area" values in the dataset that must be excluded from average country area calculations.

In [10]:
%%sql
SELECT name AS Country, MAX(area) AS Maximum_Land_area
  FROM facts;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[10]:
Country Maximum_Land_area
Russia 17098242

Cross Check

I confirmed the land area shown above for Russia is accurate and not unreasonable.

In [11]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: check values of lowest land area for reasonableness.

SELECT name AS Country, area as Land_Area
  FROM facts
ORDER BY area
LIMIT 14;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[11]:
Country Land_Area
Chad None
Niger None
French Southern and Antarctic Lands None
Saint Barthelemy None
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges None
Antarctica None
Arctic Ocean None
Atlantic Ocean None
Indian Ocean None
Pacific Ocean None
Southern Ocean None
World None
Holy See (Vatican City) 0
Monaco 2

Observations

Vatican City land area is shown as 0 and that may be because it is less that 1 sq. km. In fact, it is actually 0.49 sq. km. and is shown in the table below as 0 since it was rounded down as an integer. However, I think we should exclude that from the calculations of averages, because I consider Vatican City land area as a significant "outlier" that would distort the calculated averages.

There are 12 other "countries" showing 'None' for area.

Smallest%2010.jpg

In [12]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: exclude appropriate values in order to generate correct averages.

SELECT CAST(AVG(population) AS INT) AS Average_Population, CAST(AVG(area) AS INT) AS Average_Land_Area
  FROM facts
 WHERE (population < 7000000000) AND (population > 0) AND(area > 0);    
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[12]:
Average_Population Average_Land_Area
32799988 585419
In [13]:
%%sql
-- NOTE: specify both population and area in WHERE clause to generate apporpriate results.

SELECT name as Country, population as Population, area AS Land_Area, population / area AS People_Per_Sq_Km
  FROM facts
 WHERE population > (SELECT AVG(population)
                       FROM facts WHERE (population < 7000000000) AND (population > 0))
   AND area < (SELECT AVG(area) FROM facts)
ORDER BY People_Per_Sq_Km DESC;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[13]:
Country Population Land_Area People_Per_Sq_Km
Bangladesh 168957745 148460 1138
Korea, South 49115196 99720 492
Philippines 100998376 300000 336
Japan 126919659 377915 335
Vietnam 94348835 331210 284
United Kingdom 64088222 243610 263
Germany 80854408 357022 226
Italy 61855120 301340 205
Uganda 37101745 241038 153
Thailand 67976405 513120 132
Poland 38562189 312685 123
Spain 48146134 505370 95
Iraq 37056169 438317 84
Morocco 33322699 446550 74

Observations

Bangladesh shows to have the highest density of people per square kilometre at 1138. That is more than twice the next highest densely populated country: South Korea at 492.

HERE is an interesting article on Bangladesh, titled, "Population Challenges for Bangladesh in the Coming Decades".

Dive Further: Into The Most Densely Populated "Countries"

Let's check country population density without the restriction of population being above average and land area being below average.

We might find some very interesting information.

In [14]:
%%sql
SELECT name AS Country, area AS Land_Area, population AS Population, population/area AS People_Per_SQ_Km
  FROM facts
 WHERE (area != 'None') AND (population != 'None') AND (population < 7000000000)
ORDER BY People_Per_Sq_Km DESC
LIMIT 12
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[14]:
Country Land_Area Population People_Per_SQ_Km
Macau 28 592731 21168
Monaco 2 30535 15267
Singapore 697 5674472 8141
Hong Kong 1108 7141106 6445
Gaza Strip 360 1869055 5191
Gibraltar 6 29258 4876
Bahrain 760 1346613 1771
Maldives 298 393253 1319
Malta 316 413965 1310
Bermuda 54 70196 1299
Sint Maarten 34 39689 1167
Bangladesh 148460 168957745 1138

Observations

Some of the "countries" listed above are categorized as such either based on the title "sovereign city-state" (e.g. Monoco) or some other reason. For example, Macau is a city in socio-demographic terms, and a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China in governmental terms. Macau is not a country, it is a special administrative region under the Chinese one-country-two-system. It was a Portuguese colony granted by the Chinese for centuries before it reverted back to China in 1999.

Macau is shown to be the most density populated "country" in the world at 21,168 people per square kilometre. This is almsot 19 times that of Bangladesh. It has been deemed to be a "country" by the CIA World Factbook Org. and therefore was included in this dataset.

If we were able to list the most densely populated cities in the world, Macau would be well down on the list. The city that has the highest population density in the world is Manila in the Philippines, which was found to have a population per square km. of 46,178!! This is more than twice that of Macau.

Question

Which countries have a higher death rate than birth rate?

In [15]:
%%sql
SELECT name AS Country, death_rate as Death_Rate, birth_rate AS Birth_Rate, ROUND(death_rate / birth_rate, 3) AS Death_to_Birth_Ratio
  FROM facts
 WHERE Death_to_Birth_Ratio > 1.0
ORDER BY Death_to_Birth_Ratio DESC;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[15]:
Country Death_Rate Birth_Rate Death_to_Birth_Ratio
Bulgaria 14.44 8.92 1.619
Serbia 13.66 9.08 1.504
Latvia 14.31 10.0 1.431
Lithuania 14.27 10.1 1.413
Hungary 12.73 9.16 1.39
Monaco 9.24 6.65 1.389
Slovenia 11.37 8.42 1.35
Ukraine 14.46 10.72 1.349
Germany 11.42 8.47 1.348
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 9.72 7.42 1.31
Romania 11.9 9.14 1.302
Croatia 12.18 9.45 1.289
Greece 11.09 8.66 1.281
Belarus 13.36 10.7 1.249
Japan 9.51 7.93 1.199
Portugal 11.02 9.27 1.189
Estonia 12.4 10.51 1.18
Russia 13.69 11.6 1.18
Italy 10.19 8.74 1.166
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.75 8.87 1.099
Czech Republic 10.34 9.63 1.074
Moldova 12.59 12.0 1.049
Poland 10.19 9.74 1.046
Austria 9.42 9.41 1.001

Observations

Very, very interesting! Of the 24 countries listed above, only two "countries" are NOT part of Europe: "Saint Pierre and Miquelon" and Japan. Wow!

So why are 92% of the above listed countries with higher death rates than birth rates in Europe. I found an interesting article called, "Deaths Exceed Births in Most of Europe" that provides some explanation. It's available here as a pdf file.

When I checked whether Saint Pierre and Miquelon are part of Europe, I was surpised to find out it was just south of Newfoundland and is NOT part of Canada! Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (a group of islands) are the last piece of French territory in North America. They are quite distinct from Newfoundland and Labrador.

Question

Which countries have the highest birth rate?

In [16]:
%%sql
SELECT name AS Country, birth_rate AS Birth_Rate, death_rate AS Death_Rate, population AS Population
  FROM facts
ORDER BY birth_rate DESC
Limit 20;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[16]:
Country Birth_Rate Death_Rate Population
Niger 45.45 12.42 18045729
Mali 44.99 12.89 16955536
Uganda 43.79 10.69 37101745
Zambia 42.13 12.67 15066266
Burkina Faso 42.03 11.72 18931686
Burundi 42.01 9.27 10742276
Malawi 41.56 8.41 17964697
Somalia 40.45 13.62 10616380
Angola 38.78 11.49 19625353
Mozambique 38.58 12.1 25303113
Afghanistan 38.57 13.89 32564342
Nigeria 37.64 12.9 181562056
Ethiopia 37.27 8.19 99465819
Sierra Leone 37.03 10.81 5879098
South Sudan 36.91 8.18 12042910
Chad 36.6 14.28 11631456
Tanzania 36.39 8.0 51045882
Cameroon 36.17 10.11 23739218
Benin 36.02 8.21 10448647
Congo, Republic of the 35.85 10.0 4755097

Observations

WOW!

Only 1 out of the top 20 countries with highest birth_rate is NOT from Africa! That is Afghanistan.

All the rest are countries of Africa. I came across some reasons given in the article I read. You can find it here

A key reason given is, high fertility driven by multiple factors:

  • high desired family size
  • low levels of use of modern contraceptives
  • high levels of adolescent child bearing

The graph below taken from the article I read, shows fertility rate of Africa compared to other regions of the world.

Fertility.jpg

Final Questions

1. Which countries have more water than land?

2. Which countries have the highest ratios under 1.0 of water to land?

In [17]:
%%sql
SELECT name AS Country, area_land AS Land_Area, area_water AS Water_Area, ROUND(CAST(area_water AS Float)/CAST(area_land AS Float), 4) AS Ratio_of_Water_to_Land
  FROM facts
 WHERE (area_water != 'None') AND (area_water != 0) AND (area_land != 'None') AND (area_land != 0)
ORDER BY Ratio_of_Water_to_Land DESC
 Limit 20;
 * sqlite:///factbook.db
Done.
Out[17]:
Country Land_Area Water_Area Ratio_of_Water_to_Land
British Indian Ocean Territory 60 54340 905.6667
Virgin Islands 346 1564 4.5202
Puerto Rico 8870 4921 0.5548
Bahamas, The 10010 3870 0.3866
Guinea-Bissau 28120 8005 0.2847
Malawi 94080 24404 0.2594
Netherlands 33893 7650 0.2257
Uganda 197100 43938 0.2229
Eritrea 101000 16600 0.1644
Liberia 96320 15049 0.1562
Bangladesh 130170 18290 0.1405
Gambia, The 10120 1180 0.1166
Taiwan 32260 3720 0.1153
Finland 303815 34330 0.113
India 2973193 314070 0.1056
Canada 9093507 891163 0.098
Sweden 410335 39960 0.0974
Colombia 1038700 100210 0.0965
Brunei 5265 500 0.095
Guyana 196849 18120 0.0921

Observations

There are only two "countries" shown in the table above identified as having greater water area than land area: The British Indian Ocean Territory and the Virgin Islands. Personnally, I would say that is not correct in that I believe the water area is calculated based on all the water between the islands for each of these two "countries". Both the British Indian Ocean Territory and Virgin Islands are a group of many islands as shown in the two maps below. The islands do not fully enclose all the water in between to create a "lake" or series of "lakes". On that basis then, I would say these do not qualify as cases where the ratio of water area to land area is greater than one.

The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) shown in map below, enjoys a highly strategic location in the centre of the Indian Ocean, about 1,770 kilometres east of the Seychelles and 2,180km north-east of Port Louis, Mauritius. The territory, an archipelago of 58 islands also known as the Chagos Archipelago, covers some 640,000km2 of ocean. The islands have a total land area of only 60km2. Diego Garcia, the largest and most southerly island, has an area of 44 square km. In 1971, Diego Garcia was closed when the island was deemed necessary for defence purposes under the 1966 UK-US Exchange of Notes. Diego Garcia is home to approximately 3,000 UK and US military personnel and civilian contractors.

Virgin Islands - Of the 36 British islands, 16 are inhabited. Tortola (Turtle Dove), with an area of 21 square miles, is the largest and is the site of the group’s capital and population centre, Road Town. Other larger islands in the British group are Anegada, with an area of 15 square miles; Virgin Gorda (the Fat Virgin), with an area of 8 square miles; and Jost Van Dyke, about 3 square miles. Lesser islands include Great Tobago, Salt, Peter, Cooper, Norman, Guana, Beef, Great Thatch, Little Thatch, and Marina Cay.

Puerto Rico - Even though the ratio of water area to land area for Puerto Rico is less than 1 (0.5548), I believe that value is also not legitimate for the same reason as the two cases above (see map of Puerto Rico further below). I read the following about Puerto Rico: "Although, often referred an island, Puerto Rico is an archipelago formed by the main island and 143 small islands, islets and cays, including Vieques, Culebra, Culebrita, Palomino, Mona, and Monito. Vieques and Culebra are also known by some by the Spanish Virgin Islands, formerly called the Passage Islands and also known as the Puerto Rican Virgin Islands."

I would say the ratio values shown above for The Bahamas and Guinea-Bassau are also inaccurate for the same reason because of the inclusion of many islands.

It looks like the country with the highest legitimate water area to land area ratio is Malawi (0.2847). We would say that about 25% of Malawi is covered with water. The map further below makes that value look reasonable. Malawi, a landlocked country in southeastern Africa, is defined by its topography of highlands split by the Great Rift Valley and enormous Lake Malawi. The lake’s southern end falls within Lake Malawi National Park – sheltering diverse wildlife from colorful fish to baboons – and its clear waters are popular for diving and boating. Peninsular Cape Maclear is known for its beach resorts.

In conclusion, I would say that no country has more than 30% of its land covered with water.

BIOT.jpg

BVI.jpg

PR.jpg

Malawi.jpg

Summary

I don't think I need to rehash all the observations described above.

It has been a great journey around the world discovering many things I didn't know about various countries! It sort of tweaked my interest in doing some travelling, when the time is right.

I suppose the most interesting thing I learned was about the Pitcairn Islands and Pitcairn itself being known as "Mutiny on the Bounty" Island and its history surrounding that!

I hope you enjoyed this very informative journey with me. Perhaps my next world project will be titled, "Around the World in 80 Ways".