Floquet Solvers

Author: C. Staufenbiel, 2022


The Floquet formalism deals with periodic time-dependent systems. The Floquet approach can be more efficient for such problems than using the standard master equation solver qutip.mesolve() and it has a broader range of validity for periodic driving.

In this notebook, we will discuss the solver functionality of the Floquet formalism implemented in QuTiP using an example quantum system. A more detailed introduction into the Floquet formalism can be found in the documentation.

A more in depth introduction into the internal functions of the Floquet formalism, used also by the solvers fsesolve and fmmesolve, is given in the floquet formalism notebook.


In [1]:
import numpy as np
from qutip import (about, basis, fmmesolve, fsesolve,
                   plot_expectation_values, sigmax, sigmaz)

In this example we will consider a strongly driven two level system, described by the time-dependent Hamiltonian:

$$ H(t) = -\frac{\Delta}{2} \sigma_x - \frac{\epsilon_0}{2} \sigma_z + \frac{A}{2} sin(\omega t) \sigma_z$$
In [2]:
# define constants
delta = 0.2 * 2 * np.pi
eps0 = 2 * np.pi
A = 2.5 * 2 * np.pi
omega = 2 * np.pi

# Non driving hamiltoninan
H0 = -delta / 2.0 * sigmax() - eps0 / 2.0 * sigmaz()

# Driving Hamiltonian
H1 = [A / 2.0 * sigmaz(), "sin(w*t)"]
args = {"w": omega}

# combined hamiltonian
H = [H0, H1]

# initial state
psi0 = basis(2, 0)

Floquet Schrödinger Equation

We can now use the qutip.fsesolve() function to solve the dynamics of the system using the Floquet formalism for the Schrödinger equation. The arguments are similar to the ones passed to qutip.sesolve(). There is an optional parameter T which defines the period of the time-dependence. If T is not given it is assumed that the passed tlist spans one period. Therefore we always pass T in this tutorial.

The Tsteps argument to fsesolve() can be used to set the number of time steps in one period T for which the Floquet modes are precalculated. Increasing this number should result in a better numerical accuracy. Tsteps should be even!

In [3]:
# period time
T = 2 * np.pi / omega
# simulation time
tlist = np.linspace(0, 2.5 * T, 101)
# simulation
result = fsesolve(H, psi0, tlist, T=T, e_ops=[sigmaz()],
                  args=args, Tsteps=1000)

plot_expectation_values([result], ylabels=["<Z>"]);

Floquet Markov Master Equation

Similar to mesolve() we can also use the Floquet formalism to solve a master equation for a dissipative quantum system. The corresponding function is fmmesolve(). However, the dissipation process is here described as a noise spectral-density function.

For example we can define a linear noise spectral-density as:

$$ S(\omega) = \frac{\gamma \cdot \omega}{4 \pi} $$

where $\gamma$ is the dissipation rate. The system-bath interaction is described by coupling operators, e.g. here we use $\sigma_x$ as a coupling operator. Note that fmmesolve currently only works with one coupling operator and one noise spectrum.

In [4]:
# Noise Spectral Density
gamma = 0.1

def noise_spectrum(omega):
    return gamma * omega / (4 * np.pi)

# Coupling Operator
c_ops = [sigmax()]

# Solve using Fmmesolve
fme_result = fmmesolve(

We can observe the dissipation dynamics when comparing the results to the expectation values obtained from fsesolve().

In [5]:
plot_expectation_values([result, fme_result],
                        ylabels=["<Z>"], show_legend=True);


In [6]:
QuTiP: Quantum Toolbox in Python
Copyright (c) QuTiP team 2011 and later.
Current admin team: Alexander Pitchford, Nathan Shammah, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Neill Lambert, Eric Giguère, Boxi Li, Jake Lishman, Simon Cross and Asier Galicia.
Board members: Daniel Burgarth, Robert Johansson, Anton F. Kockum, Franco Nori and Will Zeng.
Original developers: R. J. Johansson & P. D. Nation.
Previous lead developers: Chris Granade & A. Grimsmo.
Currently developed through wide collaboration. See https://github.com/qutip for details.

QuTiP Version:      4.7.1.dev0+9098716
Numpy Version:      1.22.4
Scipy Version:      1.8.1
Cython Version:     0.29.32
Matplotlib Version: 3.5.2
Python Version:     3.10.4
Number of CPUs:     2
BLAS Info:          Generic
OPENMP Installed:   False
INTEL MKL Ext:      False
Platform Info:      Linux (x86_64)
Installation path:  /home/runner/work/qutip-tutorials/qutip-tutorials/qutip/qutip
Please cite QuTiP in your publication.
For your convenience a bibtex reference can be easily generated using `qutip.cite()`


In [7]:
fme_result_nodis = fmmesolve(
    spectra_cb=[lambda w: 0.0],
In [8]:
assert np.allclose(result.expect[0], fme_result_nodis.expect[0], atol=1e-2)
assert not np.allclose(fme_result.expect[0],
                       fme_result_nodis.expect[0], atol=1e-2)